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[国内外] 2020年12月19日、20日国内雅思A类笔试真题回忆+答案汇总

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发表于 2020-12-14 10:53:26 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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2020年12月20日国内雅思A类笔试真题回忆+答案汇总(听说读写答案+机经整理汇总)
回忆1:
小作文:表格+饼图
大作文:讨论双方观点
Some people think governments should spend money on measures to save languages with few speakers from dying out completely. Others think this is a waste of financial resources Discuss both views and give your opinion.
回忆2:
阅读
第一篇:桥梁检测 Keep a watchful eye on the bridges
文章大意:关于如何利用技术来鉴定桥梁的损坏程度。文章涉及到10年来桥梁的状况, 以及LA大学的研究成果,如何利用声纳来检测桥梁的损坏程度, 他们新发明的装置如何安装,如何测量等, 及对未来发展的美好展望
原文:
A     Most road and rail bridges are only inspected visually, if at all. Every few months, engineers have to clamber over the structure in an attempt to find problems before the bridge shows obvious signs of damage. Technologies developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Texas A&M University may replace these surveys with microwave sensors that constantly monitor the condition of bridges.

B     “The device uses microwaves to measure the distance between the sensor and the bridge, much like radar does,” says Albert Migliori, a Los Alamos physicist “Any load on the bridge – such as traffic induces displacements, which change that distance as the bridge moves up and down.” By monitoring these movements over several minutes, the researchers can find out how the bridge resonates. Changes in its behaviour can give an early warning of damage.

C    The Interstate 40 bridge over the Rio Grande river in Albuquerque provided the researchers with a rare opportunity to text their ideas. Chuck Farrar, an engineer at Los Alamos, explains: “The New Mexico authorities decided to raze this bridge and replace it. We were able to mount instruments on it, test it under various load conditions and even inflict damage just before it was demolished.” In the 1960s and 1970s, 2500 similar bridges were built in the US. They have two steel girders supporting the load in each section. Highway experts know that this design is “fracture critical” because a failure in either girder would cause the bridge to fail.

D    After setting up the microwave dish on the ground below the bridge, the Los Alamos team installed conventional accelerometers at several points along the span to measure its motion. They then tested the bridge while traffic roared across it and while subjecting it to pounding from a “shaker”, which delivered precise punches to a specific point on the road.

E    “We then created damage that we hoped would simulate fatigue cracks that can occur in steel girders,” says Farrar. They first cut a slot about 60 centimetres long in the middle of one girder. They then extended the cut until it reached the bottom of the girder and finally they cut across the flange – the bottom of the girder’s “I” shape.

F    The initial, crude analysis of the bridge’s behaviour, based on the frequency at which the bridge resonates, did not indicate that anything was wrong until the flange was damaged. But later the data were reanalysed with algorithms that took into account changes in the mode shapes of the structure – shapes that the structure takes on when excited at a particular frequency. These more sophisticated algorithms, which were developed by Norris Stubbs at Texas A&M University, successfully identified and located the damage caused by the initial cut.

G    “When any structure vibrates, the energy is distributed throughout with some points not moving, while others vibrate strongly at various frequencies,” says Stubbs. “My algorithms use pattern recognition to detect changes in the distribution of this energy.” NASA already uses Stubbs’ method to check the behaviour of the body flap that slows space shuttles down after they land.

H    A commercial system based on the Los Alamos hardware is now available, complete with the Stubbs algorithms, from the Quatro Corporation in Albuquerque for about $100,000. Tim Darling, another Los Alamos physicist working on the microwave interferometer with Migliori, says that as the electronics become cheaper, a microwave inspection system will eventually be applied to most large bridges in the US. “In a decade I would like to see a battery or solar-powered package mounted under each bridge, scanning it every day to detect changes,” he says.

Questions 1-4
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.
1    How did the traditional way to prevent damage of the bridges before the invention of new monitoring system
A      Bridges has to be tested in every movement on two points.
B     Bridges has to be closely monitored by microwave devices.
C      Bridges has already been monitored by sensors.
D     Bridges has to be frequently inspected by professional workers with naked eyes.
Answer: D   
2    How does the new microwave monitors find out the problems of bridges
A     by changeling the distance between the positions of devices
B     by controlling the traffic flow on the bridges
C     by monitoring the distance caused by traffic between two points
D     by displacement of the several critical parts in the bridges
Answer: C   
3    Why did the expert believe there is a problem for the design called “fracture critical”
A     Engineers failed to apply the newly developed construction materials.
B     There was not enough finance to repair the bridges.
C     The supporting parts of the bridges may crack and cause the bridge to fail.
D     There was bigger traffic load conditions than the designers had anticipated.
Answer: C   
4    Defect was not recognized by a basic method in the beginning
A     until the mid of faces of bridges has fractures.
B     until the damage appears along and down to the flanges.
C     until the points on the road have been punched.
D     until the frequency of resonates appears disordered.
Answer: B   
Questions 5-8
Filling the blanks in the diagram labels.
Write the correct answer in boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet.
5
Answer: microwave dish   
6
Answer: accelerometers   
7
Answer: steel girders   
8
Answer: flange   
Questions 9-13
The reading Passage has eight paragraphs, A–H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A–H, in boxes 9–13 on your answer sheet.
9    how is the pressure that they have many a great chance to test bridges
Answer: C   
10    a ten-year positive change for microwave device
Answer: H   
11     the chance they get a honorable contract
Answer: G   
12    explanation of the mechanism for the new microwave monitoring to work
Answer: B   
13     how is the damage deliberately created by the researchers
Answer: E   



答案:
1D 【根据原文-A】题目翻译:1 传统方式是怎样防止桥梁损坏的,在新监控系统的桥梁出现之前?
A桥梁必须在每一个动作的两个点进行测试
B必须密切监测桥梁的微波设备
C桥梁已经被监视通过传感器
D桥梁必须时常由专业人员的肉眼检查
A段第一句话if at all.Every few months,engineers have to clamber over the structure in an attemptto find problems before the bridge shows obvious signs of damage.
2C 【根据原文-D】末句 题目翻译:2如何运用新的微波监控发现桥梁的问题
A通过调换设备之间的距离
B通过控制桥上的交通流
C通过监测两个点之间的距离产生的运输流量
D通过置换几个桥梁的关键部分
3C 【根据原文-C】末句 题目翻译: 3为什么专家认为有问题的设计称为“断裂临界”
A工程师未能应用新开发的建筑材料
B没有足够的资金来修复桥梁
C桥体的支撑部分出现裂缝,可能导致桥梁的失败
D有更大的交通高峰超过了设计师的预期
4B 【根据原文-E】末句 题目翻译:4 开始,一个基础的方法的缺陷并没有被意识到
A直到桥梁的中间出现断裂
B直到损坏沿着上下的凸缘出现
C直到道路上的各个点被用力推进
D直到共振的频率出现无序
5microwave dish 【根据原文-D】第一句话 After setting up the microwave dish on the ground belowthe bridge.
6accelerometers 【根据原文-D】第二行 Los Alamos team installed conventional accelerometersat several points
7steel girders 【根据原文-E】第三行that can occur in steel girders.'' says Farrar.
8flange 【根据原文-E】末句 girder and finally they cut across the flange-the bottom of thegirder's"I" shape.
9C 【根据原文-C】 题目翻译:他们有很多好的改变测量桥压力的方法
10H【根据原文-H】末句 In a decade I would like to see a battery or solar-powered packagemounted under each bridge, 题目翻译:十年对微波器件的积极变化
11G【根据原文-G】 题目翻译: 一个机会他们获得了荣誉合同
12B【根据原文-B】 题目翻译 : 解释机制装置为了新的微波监测工作
13E【根据原文-E】 题目翻译 : 研究人员是如何故意造成破坏的
第二篇:人和动物的睡眠
第三篇:会飞的鱼
回忆3:
听力
Section 1 买床 Enquiry about Beds
1-10) Complete the following information
Bed
Type: oxford
1. width: 140 cm
length: 220 cm
2. wood finish: natural
3. fee: £265 (including delivery)
Bed table:
Option selected:
4. light within
5. glass cupboard door
6. a top drawer with a lock
delivery details
7. Name:  Lisa ROGALA
8. Postcode: HE254EU
9. Delivery time: morning next week
10. If she is not in, leave the foods in the garage

Section 2 2种植物
11. The program of MFUS was funded by
A.town planners
B.businessman
C.university agriculture specialists
12.What is the original reason to starting MFUS  
A.to encourage more efficient land use
B. reduce CO2 emissions
C. healthier diet for local people
13 for the coming year, MFUS will focus on recruiting members from
A. schools
B. company employees
C community centres
14、what kind of information is available for the members of MFUS
A. practical garden tips
B. answers to technical questions
C. land plan
15、What are provided by MFUS for disabled people
A. garden tools
B. containers for plants
C .soil and compost
16、what has been an unexpected advantage of MFUS
A.practical use in science classes
B. cheaper food for students at scbools
C.Its help in encouraging community pride among students
17. City Hospital -----Bcooking lesson) meal
18. Government ----–Egreenhouse)
19. University --------Cadvice on soil)
20. supermarket -------Dcourse about eating) fit diet

Section 3 音乐对于人们进食的影响的研究 Music and Diet
21-24) Multiple Choice
21. What is the research subject?
A. music’s effect on guests   
B. music’s effect on food
22. In **** cafe (某餐馆), music is played:
A. in different areas   
B. same level of volume
C. certain time
23. What is the first few question on the questionnaire about:
C. disguises the purpose of the survey
24. Where are questions collected from:
A. a previous study (prefer previous questionnaire)
B. self made     
C. the dictionary
25-26) Multiple Choice criteria for restaurant selection:
A.competition nearby
E. Seat capacity
27-30) Matching
JAZZ MUSIC,
NO MUSIC,
CLASSIC,
POP
27. jazz music: people spent more money (jazz makes people stay)
28. no music: people didn’t think the restaurant worthy the price (no music makes people feel the bill is expensive)
29. classical music: people left right after eating (no coffee drinking)
30. Pop music: people came back again

Section 4Attitudes on Children in Different Countries
不同国家区域对孩子的态度
31-40) Completion
31. children can get education in school as well as by play
32. children should learn to show respect to older people
33. children are under great pressure to meet their family expectation
34. parents can make more contribution to children’s education than schools
35. parents stop to discipline children when they are getting older.
36. yet when getting older, they have more tolerance for children
37. in Africa children should have more protection both physically and spiritually
38. In western countries most children can not prepare the meal at the age of 4
39. parents help kids distinguish different type of work
40. parents should sometimes pose threat of poverty to children
回忆4:
回忆5:
回忆6:
回忆7:
回忆8:
回忆9:
回忆10:



2020年12月19日国内雅思A类笔试真题回忆+答案汇总(听说读写答案+机经整理汇总)
回忆1:
小作文是饼图 1985和2003 sources of energy的变化
大作文是年轻人选择人品不一定好的media or sports stars to admire positive or nrgative
回忆2:
听力
p1 两个人对话,男的去哪里玩了然后住了三个地方在三个地方分别干嘛
p2 cycle to work政策对员工/公司的好处 停车场地图位置
p3 两个人向老师汇报 填空 关于网站的事情 网站的建立者/目的
p4香水博物馆 选择
回忆3:
小作文是生产能源的资源 oil natural gas renewable sources 等在一个国家1983 2003的饼图对比
大作文是young people admire meida and sports stars not set a good example的 negative or positive development
回忆4:
阅读
p1如何识别撒谎者
2研究大猩猩的行为
p3植物如何传播种子
回忆5:
听力
SECTION 1岛屿旅游
1. local food: cheese
2. beach football
3. near the market
4. helicopter tour
5. watch film
6. rock climbing 或 tree climbing
7. a hostel of a village
8. some places good for fishing
9. camping
10. bring your towel

SECTION 2 骑自行车上班的好处
11-12 improve health & benefits environment13-14 improve punctuality & make workplace a happier one
15-16 limited amount of money & equipment must be bought at approved stores
17.  red bike shop B
18.  yellow bike shop C
19.  pink bike shop D
20.  green bike shop E

SECTION 3网站制作
21. the main purpose for people to use the internet is to save time
22. areas concerned privacy
23. mainly women
24. exchange social information
25. to sell product or prived support
26. offer advice
27. need to be creative
28. offer ideas
29. net worker(s)
30. to plan holidays

SECTION 4 香水瓶的发展历史
31. why perfume bing exhibited in the museum?
C. experts believe it is valuable
32. why did early European use perfume?
A. water shortage
33. wearing perfume can also be shown
B. for wealth
34. the perfume was named after
C. the person who invented it
35. about one perfume, which one is correct?
A. for loading cosmetic
36. one company produces a luxury perfume. Which part of the bottle is gold?
C. lid
37. one part of perfume bottle is designed to
B. avoid drying up
38. what is the relationship between perfume and the word “perfume”?
A. similar substance
39. what is the name for perfume bottle
A. sponge
40. The feature of Tiffany bottle
C. apply skillful crystal

回忆6:
阅读:
第一篇:如何识别撒谎者
A
However much we may abhor it, deception  comes naturally to all living things. Birds do it by feigning injury to lead  hungry predators away from nesting young. Spider crabs do it by disguise:  adorning themselves with strips of kelp and other debris, they pretend to be  something they are not--and so escape their enemies. Nature amply rewards  successful deceivers by allowing them to survive long enough to mate and  reproduce. So it may come as no surprise to learn that human beings--who,  according to psychologist Gerald Jellison of the University of South  California, are lied to about 200 times a day, roughly one untruth every five  minutes--often deceive for exactly the same reasons: to save their own skins  or to get something they can't get by other means.
B
But knowing how to catch deceit can be  just as important a survival skill as knowing how to tell a lie and get away  with it. A person able to spot falsehood quickly is unlikely to be swindled  by an unscrupulous business associate or hoodwinked by a devious spouse.  Luckily, nature provides more than enough clues to trap dissemblers in their  own tangled webs--if you know where to look. By closely observing facial  expressions, body language and tone of voice, practically anyone can  recognize the telltale signs of lying. Researchers are even programming  computers--like those used on Lie Detector--to get at the truth by analyzing  the same physical cues available to the naked eye and ear. "With the  proper training, many people can learn to reliably detect lies," says  Paul Ekman, professor of psychology at theUniversityofCalifornia,San  Francisco, who has spent the past 15 years studying the secret art of  deception.
C
In order to know what kind of lies work  best, successful liars need to accurately assess other people's emotional  states. Ekman's research shows that this same emotional intelligence is  essential for good lie detectors, too. The emotional state to watch out for  is stress, the conflict most liars feel between the truth and what they  actually say and do.
Even high-tech lie detectors don't detect  lies as such; they merely detect the physical cues of emotions, which may or  may not correspond to what the person being tested is saying. Polygraphs, for  instance, measure respiration, heart rate and skin conductivity, which tend  to increase when people are nervous--as they usually are when lying. Nervous  people typically perspire, and the salts contained in perspiration conduct  electricity. That's why a sudden leap in skin conductivity indicates  nervousness--about getting caught, perhaps?--which might, in turn, suggest  that someone is being economical with the truth. On the other hand, it might  also mean that the lights in the television studio are too hot--which is one  reason polygraph tests are inadmissible in court. "Good lie detectors  don't rely on a single sign," Ekman says, "but interpret clusters  of verbal and nonverbal clues that suggest someone might be lying."
D
Those clues are written all over the  face. Because the musculature of the face is directly connected to the areas  of the brain that process emotion, the countenance can be a window to the  soul. Neurological studies even suggest that genuine emotions travel  different pathways through the brain than insincere ones. If a patient  paralyzed by stroke on one side of the face, for example, is asked to smile  deliberately, only the mobile side of the mouth is raised. But tell that same  person a funny joke, and the patient breaks into a full and spontaneous  smile. Very few people--most notably, actors and politicians--are able to  consciously control all of their facial expressions. Lies can often be caught  when the liar's true feelings briefly leak through the mask of deception.  "We don't think before we feel," Ekman says. "Expressions tend  to show up on the face before we're even conscious of experiencing an  emotion."
E
One of the most difficult facial  expressions to fake--or conceal, if it is genuinely felt--is sadness. When  someone is truly sad, the forehead wrinkles with grief and the inner corners  of the eyebrows are pulled up. Fewer than 15% of the people Ekman tested were  able to produce this eyebrow movement voluntarily. By contrast, the lowering  of the eyebrows associated with an angry scowl can be replicated at will by  almost everybody. "If someone claims they are sad and the inner corners  of their eyebrows don't go up," Ekman says, "the sadness is  probably false."
F
The smile, on the other hand, is one of  the easiest facial expressions to counterfeit. It takes just two muscles--the  zygomaticus major muscles that extend from the cheekbones to the corners of  the lips--to produce a grin. But there's a catch. A genuine smile affects not  only the corners of the lips but also the orbicularis oculi, the muscle  around the eye that produces the distinctive "crow's-feet" associated  with people who laugh a lot. A counterfeit grin can be unmasked if the lip  corners go up, the eyes crinkle but the inner corners of the eyebrows are not  lowered, a movement controlled by the orbicularis oculi that is difficult to  fake. The absence of lowered eyebrows is one reason why false smiles look so  strained and stiff.
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答案:
QQ图片20201219163358.png

第二篇:大猩猩文化研究The cultureof Chimpanzee)
A
The similarities between chimpanzees andhumans have been studied for years, but in the past decade researchers havedetermined that these resemblances run much deeper than anyone first thought.For instance, the nut cracking observed in the Ta? Forest is far from a simplechimpanzee behavior; rather it is a singular adaptation found only in thatparticular part of Africa and a trait that biologists consider to be anexpression of chimpanzee culture. Scientists frequently use the term"culture" to describe elementary animal behaviors- such as theregional dialects of different populations of songbirds-but as it turns out,the rich and varied cultural traditions found among chimpanzees are second incomplexity only to human traditions.
B
During thepast two years, an unprecedented scientific collaboration, involving everymajor research group studying chimpanzees, has documented a multitude ofdistinct cultural patterns extending across Africa, in actions ranging from theanimals use of toolsto their forms of communication and social customs. This emerging picture ofchimpanzees not only affects how we think of these amazing creatures but alsoalters human beingsconception of our own uniqueness and hints at ancient foundationsfor extraordinary capacity for culture.
C
Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes havecoexisted for hundreds of millennia and share more than 98 percent of theirgenetic material, yet only 40 years ago we still knew next to nothing aboutchimpanzee behavior in the wild. That began to change in the 1960s, whenToshisada Nishida of Kyoto University in Japan and Jane Goodall began theirstudies of wild chimpanzees at two field sites in Tanzania. (Goodalls research station at Gombe-thefirst of its kind-is more famous, but Nishidas site at Mahale is the second oldest chimpanzee research site inthe world.)
D
In these initial studies, as thechimpanzees became accustomed to close observation, the remarkable discoveriesbegan. Researchers witnessed a range of unexpected behaviors, including fashioningand using tools, hunting, meat eating, food sharing and lethal fights betweenmembers of neighboring communities.
E
As early as 1973, Goodall recorded 13 formsof tool use as well as eight social activities that appeared to differ betweenthe Gombe chimpanzees and chimpanzee populations elsewhere. She ventured thatsome variations had what she termed a cultural origin. But what exactly didGoodall mean by "culture"? According to the Oxford EncyclopedicEnglish Dictionary, culture is defined as "the customs . . . andachievements of a particular time or people." The diversity of humancultures extends from technological variations to marriage rituals, fromculinary habits to myths and legends. Animals do not have myths and legends, ofcourse. But they do have the capacity to pass on behavioral traits fromgeneration to generation, not through their genes but by learning. Forbiologists, this is the fundamental criterion for a cultural trait: it must besomething that can be learned by observing the established skills of others andthus passed on to future generations
F
What of the implications for chimpanzeesthemselves? We must highlight the tragic loss of chimpanzees, whose populationsare being decimated just when we are at last coming to appreciate theseastonishing animals more completely. Populations have plummeted in the pastcentury and continue to fall as a result of illegal trapping, logging and, mostrecently, the bushmeat trade. The latter is particularly alarming: logging hasdriven roadways into the forests that are now used to ship wild-animalmeat-including chimpanzee meat-to consumers as far afield as Europe. Suchdestruction threatens not only the animals themselves but also a host offascinatingly different ape cultures.
G
Perhaps the cultural richness of the apemay yet help in its salvation, however. Some conservation efforts have alreadyaltered the attitudes of some local people. A few organizations have begun toshow videotapes illustrating the cognitive prowess of chimpanzees. One Zairianviewer was heard to exclaim, "Ah, this ape is so like me, I can no longereat him. "
H
How an international team of chimpanzeeexperts conducted the most comprehensive survey of the animals ever attempted.Scientists have been investigating chimpanzee culture for several decades, buttoo often their studies contained a crucial flaw. Most attempts to documentcultural diversity among chimpanzees have relied solely on officially publishedaccounts of the behaviors recorded at each research site. But this approachprobably overlooks a good deal of cultural variation for three reasons.
I
First,scientists typically dont publish an extensive list of all the activities they do not see ata particular location. Yet this is exactly what we need to know-which behaviorswere and were not observed at each site. Second, many reports describechimpanzee behaviors without saying how common they are; with- out thisinformation, we cant determine whether a particular action was a once-in-a-lifetimeaberration or a routine event that should be considered part of the animals culture. Finally, researchers descriptions of potentiallysignificant chimpanzee behaviors frequently lack sufficient detail, making itdifficult for scientists working at other spots to record the presence orabsence of the activities.
J
To remedy these problems, the two of usdecided to take a new approach. We asked field researchers at each site for alist of all the behaviors they suspected were local traditions. With thisinformation in hand, we pulled together a comprehensive list of 65 candidatesfor cultural behaviors.
K
Then we distributed our list to the teamleaders at each site. In consultation with their colleagues, they classifiedeach behavior in terms of its occurrence or absence in the chimpanzee communitystudied. The key categories were customary behavior (occurs in most or all ofthe able-bodied members of at least one age or sex class, such as all adultmales), habitual (less common than customary but occurs repeatedly in severalindividuals), present (seen at the site but not habitual), absent (never seen),and unknown.
L
The extensive survey turned up no fewerthan 39 chimpanzee patterns of behavior that should be labeled as culturalvariations, including numerous forms of tool use, grooming techniques andcourtship gambits, several of which are illustrated throughout this article.This cultural richness is far in excess of anything known for any other speciesof animal. Todays lessonincludes a demonstration of how to crack open a coula nut. A mother chimpanzee inthe Tai Forest of Ivory Coast uses a stone hammer to cleave a nut while ayoungster watches. Not all chimpanzees in this area have developed this behavior.On the eastern bank of the Sassandra-NZo River, chimpanzees do not crack nuts even though members of thesame species on the other side of the river, just a few miles away, do. All therequired raw materials are available on both sides, and the nuts could becracked using the technique habitual at Tai. The river serves as a literalcultural barrier.
  Whichparagraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter G-K, inboxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
  1. A problemof researchers on chimpanzee culture which are only based on official sources.
  2. Design anew system by two scientists aims to solve the problem.
  3. Reasonswhy previous research on ape culture is problematic.
  4.Classification of data observed or collected.
  5. Anexample that showing tragic outcome of animals leading to indication of changein local peoples attitude inpreservation
  Do thefollowing statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
  TRUE if thestatement is true
  FALSE if thestatement is false
  NOT GIVEN ifthe information is not given in the passage
  6. Researchfound that chimpanzees will possess the same complex culture as human.
  7. Human andapes ancestors lived together long ago and share most of their geneticsubstance.
  8. JaneGoodalls observedmany surprising features of complex behaviors among chimpanzees.
  9.Chimpanzees, like human, deliver cultural behaviors mostly from geneticinheritance.
  10. Fordecades, researchers have investigated chimpanzees by data obtained from bothunobserved and observed approaches.
  11. When theunexpected discoveries of chimpanzee behavior start?
  12. Whichcountry is the researching site of Toshisada Nishida and Jane Goodall?
  13. What didthe chimpanzee have to get used to in the initial study?
  14. Whatterm can depict it that Jane Goodall found the chimpanzee used tool in 1973?
答案:
1-5 请根据段落自己查找,段落配对是最难题型。
1. H
【原文参考依据-H段倒数第二句】Most attempts to documentcultural diversity among chimpanzees have relied solely on officially publishedaccounts of the behaviors recorded at each research site.
2. J
【原文参考依据-J段首句】To remedy(纠正) these problems, the two of usdecided to take a new approach.
3. I【原文参考依据-I段】First,scientists typically dont publish an extensive list of all the activities they dont see at a particular location. Yetthis is exactly what we need to know-which behaviors were and were not observedat each site. Second, many reports describe chimpanzee behaviors without sayinghow common they are;without this information, we cant determine whether a particularaction was a once-in-a-lifetime aberration or a routine event that should beconsidered part of the animals culture. Finally,researchers descriptions of potentially significant chimpanzee behaviorsfrequently lack sufficient details, making it difficult for scientists to workat other spots to record the presence or absence of the activities.
first.... second..... finally 都是在列举原因
4. K
【原文参考依据-K段首句】Then we distributed our list tothe team leaders at each site. In consultation with their colleagues, theyclassified each behavior in terms of its occurrence or absence in thechimpanzee community studied.
5. G
【原文参考依据G1-2句】Some conservation efforts have already altered the attitudes of somelocal people. A few organizations have begun to show videotapes illustratingthe cognitive prowess of chimpanzees. One Zairian viewer was heard to exclaim,Ah, this ape is so like me, I canno longer eat him. 举例,村民看完videotape ,发现猩猩和他们一样,就不打算吃猩猩了....
6. NOT GIVEN【原文参考依据-A段末尾】Scientistsfrequently use the term culture to describe elementary animal behaviors such as the regionaldialects of different populations of songbirds-but as it turns out, the richand varied cultural traditions found among chimpanzees are second in complexityonly to human traditions.
6A段末尾,题干是:“科学家可以使”。。。。一样复杂,没有科学家使动的意思,看似跟A 段最后一句定位,其实不是一个事
7. TRUE
【原文参考依据-C段首句】Homo sapiens and Pan troglodyteshave coexisted for hundreds of millennia and share more than 98 percent oftheir genetic material, yet only 40 years ago we still knew next to nothingabout chimpanzee behavior in the wild.
homo sapiens 就是人类祖先pan troglodyte 就是猩猩祖先。
8. TRUE
【原文参考依据-C4-6行】That began to change in the 1960s, whenToshisada Nishida of KyotoUniversity in Japan and Tane Goodall began their studies of wild chimpanzees attwo field sites in Tanzania.
9. FALSE
【原文参考依据-E7-8行】 The diversity of human cultures extends from technological variationsto marriage rituals, from culinary habits to myths and legends.
10. FALSE
【原文参考依据-H段倒数第二句】Most attempts to documentcultural diversity among chimpanzees have relied solely on officially publishedaccounts of the behaviors recorded at each research site. 定位为H段后面的 have relied solely (完全)on ......behaviors recorded(=observed).. 没有提到unobserved, 题干与原文直接冲突。
summary 答案洒在CDE段,比较好找。
11. in the 1960s
【原文参考依据-C4-7行】That began to change in the 1960s, when Toshisada Nishida of KyotoUniversity in Japan and Tane Goodall began their studies of wild chimpanzees attwo field sites in Tanzania.
12. Tanzania (此题题目请将where 修改为which country)
【原文参考依据-C4-7行】That began to change in the 1960s, whenToshisada Nishida of KyotoUniversity in Japan and Tane Goodall began their studies of wild chimpanzees attwo field sites in Tanzania.
13. (close)observation/observers
【原文参考依据-D段首句】In these initial studies, as thechimpanzees became accustomed to close observation, the remarkable discoveriesbegan.
14. (a)culture origin
【原文参考依据-E3-4行】She ventured that some variations had what shetermed a culturalorigin.

第三篇:植物如何传播种子
回忆7:
听力
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回忆8:
小作文 饼图  一个国家1985和2003年能源原料的对比

大作文Nowadays young people are admiring media and sports stars, even though they do not set a good example. Do you think this is a positive or negative development?
回忆9:
回忆10:




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