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2019年5月19日托福听说读写真题答案回忆蹲点汇总+解析

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发表于 2019-5-17 09:07:25 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
2019年5月19日托福听说读写真题答案回忆蹲点汇总+解析请看最下面
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2019年5月19日托福听说读写真题答案回忆蹲点汇总+解析
回忆1:
  阅读部分
1.寄居蟹
2.鸟筑窝的条件
3.两种岩浆
4.地球起源
5.root和grain的营养问题
6.类似于金字塔的poorpoor的建筑

回忆2:
独立写作
Many schools require young children(aged 5-11)to study together in small groups instead of studying alone. Do agree or disagree with the following statement? Requiring children to study in groups is the best way to teach them. And why?
很多学校要求5-11岁小盆友在小组学习而非独自学习。你是否同意如下观点?要求孩子们参加小组学校是教育他们的最佳方式。为什么?

综合写作(重复2015年4月12日,2018年9月8日托福综合写作)
在San Francisco 和LA之间修建高铁high-speed rail lines
阅读
1.
减少交通维护费用。因为西部公路维修费用昂贵,建立轨道交通后会减少破坏;        
2.
缓解交通拥堵。建设之后人们会选择轨道交通出行;
3.
有利于环境。 One of the most environmentally friendly form of transportation.
听力反驳
1.
新建费用更高,政府需要借钱去修建borrow 100 million 相当于政府年收入的75% 偿还很艰难;
2.人们选择什么交通方式取决于其方便程度。东海岸公交系统发达去车站很方便,但西海岸公交不方便,火车站都在urban,人们去车站不方便,人们其实也不会选择轨道交通依然会开车;
3.High-speedtrain 无法覆盖所有地区,有的地方无法实现high speed所以跟regulartrain一样,并不能节能fuel efficiency.
回忆3:
口 语 部 分
Task 1
Nowadays, instead of communicating face to face, people communicate through a video chat app more often. Talk about one advantage and one disadvantage of communicating through a video chat app.
如今,人们不怎么见面,而是更多地通过视频或APP交流。谈一谈通过视频或APP交流的利弊各一。
Task 2
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A school should no more require students to do experiments but show students the videos of experiments. Why?Include reasons and examples to support your response.
你是否同意如下观点?为什么?
一个学校不应再邀请学生做实验,而应给学生放实验录像。
Task 3
学校要搞租自行车,一是可以减少堵车,二是让学生锻炼身体。对话里男生同意,理由:
a:校园太大,教学楼和宿舍太远,所以要开车,但是如果有自行车就不用了;
b:课业繁重,如果骑车就不需要再额外找时间锻炼身体。
Task 4
Characteristic displacement,同一个物种在一个intense环境里生存会进化出不同的特征。举例是一种鱼,一种体型大,一种体型小。小的嘴小,然后身体是boney structure,所以会吃smaller prey。大的反之。
Task 5
一个女生受邀出席biology reference,但是她的朋友要来找他。所以有时间冲突。建议是:带朋友一起周六出席,但是朋友不一定感兴趣;或者reschedule,但是朋友周末有工作,不好意思让她的朋友再和老板请假。
Task 6
climate与house design的关系,举了两个例子 一个是沙漠里的房子,讲的是房子材料;一个是山上的房子,讲的是屋顶。
回忆4:
听 力 部 分
Conversation
1.问论文的写作
2.博物馆兼职想去和自己专业相关的岗位
3.关于自己职业的方向选择

Lecture
1.雕刻有关系的一个技术,跟中国有关
2.黑洞
3.漆雕
4.玻璃制品
回忆5:
Reading
1. 地球起源
2. root和grain的营养问题
3. 讲类似于金字塔的poorpoor的建筑
4. 鸟筑窝的条件
5. 两种岩浆
6. 寄居蟹
7. 叶子的不同形状(并列结构)
8. 荷兰中间阶层的出现促进了艺术家发展
9. 对于特别久远画作的时间鉴别(背景、画和现实社会的联系、直接和间接鉴别的方法)
10. 谷物的优点
11. 欧洲经济萧条,农业科技也不行之类的
12. 荷兰艺术收藏

单词题:
1. Exceedingly= extremely
2. Designation=identify
3. Diminish=reduce
回忆6:
Listening
Conversation
1. 问论文的写作;
2. 博物馆兼职想去和自己专业相关的岗位;
3. 在自己职业的方向选择;
4. 跟环科老师探讨一种植物;

Lecture
1. 科技类讲黑洞;
2. 艺术类一个漆雕;
3. 一个玻璃制品的;
4. 讲一个跟雕刻有关的中国技术;
5. Asian-accent;
6. 天文学,涉及sunlike stars,white dwarf,dark matters.
回忆7:
独立写作
重复2016年10月16日
Many schools require young children (aged 5-11) to work together in a small group instead of working alone to learn many activities.
Do you agree or disagree it is the best way to teach children?

综合写作
重复2015年4月12日、2018年9月8日
阅读部分:在West Coast修高铁。
1. 可以省养路费;
2. 缓解congestion;
3. 节省燃料。

听力部分:反驳。
1. 加州建这个高铁就很贵,是每年什么的75%。
2. 在加州可以缓解交通是因为……
3. 省燃料需要建whole route,不然到老的路段还是要减速。
回忆8:
Speaking
Task 1
Nowadays, instead of communicating face to face, people communicate through a video chat app more often. Talk about one advantage and one disadvantage of communicating through a video chat app.
Task2
学校不应再邀请学生做实验,而应给学生放实验录像。你是否同意?为什么?
Task3
学校要搞租自行车,一是可以减少堵车,二是让学生锻炼身体。对话里男生同意,理由是校园太大,教学楼和宿舍太远,所以要开车,但是如果有自行车就不用了;课业繁重,如果骑车通勤就不需要再额外找时间锻炼身体。
Task4
Characteristic displacement,动物行为,讲一种物种在资源匮乏的情况下进化为两类来获得不同资源。举例是一种xxxback鱼,一种体型大一种体型小。小的嘴小,然后身体是boney structure,所以会吃smaller prey。大的反之。
Task5
一个女生要去参加biology conference,但她朋友之前已经说好要来找她玩。所以有schedule conflict。建议是:
1. 带朋友一起周六出席,但是朋友不一定感兴趣;
2. reschedule,但是朋友周末有工作,不好意思让她的朋友再和老板请假。
Task 6
climate与house design的关系,举了两个例子:一个是沙漠里的房子,讲的是房子材料;一个是山上的房子,讲的是屋顶。
回忆9:
综合写作
重复2015.04.12和2018.09.08大陆托福真题
阅读主要观点提取
总论点:美国东部的高铁发展是很成功,一些专家认为,在美国西部建立一个往返旧金山和洛杉矶的铁路系统也是很有好处的。
分论点一:减少公路维修。修护公路的费用是很贵的。由于经费有限,所以加利福尼亚州很难保证公路一直保持很好的条件。因此,如果有高铁的话,人们就可以放弃驾车而选择乘坐高铁,这样一来就可以减少对公路的损坏。
分论点二:缓解交通堵塞。在一条往返旧金山和洛杉矶的一条主要干道上,交通堵塞已经处于可以创纪录的程度了。另外,高铁系统已经帮助了一些东部地区缓解了交通堵塞问题。高铁甚至已经成为了人们最喜爱的交通方式。所以,高铁在解决交通堵塞的问题上起到了至关重要的作用。
分论点三:高铁是最环保的交通方式之一。高铁是非常省燃料的。所以,相对于汽车和常规火车来说,使用高铁每年可以减少大量的有害气体排放。

听力主要观点提取
总论点:建立一个往返旧金山和洛杉矶的铁路系统并不是一个好主意。
分论点一:建立一个高铁系统比修护公路更昂贵。如果要建一个全新的铁路系统,加利福尼亚州需要借1000亿美元,这相当于加利福尼亚州全年税收的75%。所以,这一大笔钱是很难独立偿还的,这会使加利福尼亚州出现财政危机。
分论点二:是否能缓解交通压力取决于乘坐高铁是否比驾车更方便。在美国东部城市,由于公共交通线路很普遍,人们很容易找到高铁站。但是,西部城市的公共交通很稀少。所以,对于居住在西海岸的人们来说,驾车比乘坐高铁更方便。
分论点三:有一些区域的轨道是不能允许高速行驶的高铁通过的。所以,当高铁通过这些区域时,它必须要降速行驶。在这种情况下,高铁会排放出较多的有害气体。
满分范文:
The author suggests that California should build a high-speed rail system to connect the cities of San Francisco and Los Angeles. However, the professor says that it doesn’t have many benefits for California.

First, the writer points out that maintaining roads is expensive. As a matter of fact, the speaker says that building a high-speed rail system is much more expensive than maintaining roads. To build a new system, California have to borrow $100 billion, which is equal to 75% of all the tax income the state collects in one year. As a result, this would put itself in a difficult financial situation.

Second, the reading states that building high-speed rail system helps relieve traffic congestion. Nevertheless, the speaker indicates that most of people living in the urban areas on the West Coast will keep driving. The reason is that unlike the ideal situation in the East Coast cities, cities on the East Coast lack extensive public transportation systems. So, people in the West Coast cities cannot reach the rail stations conveniently.

Third, the professor refuses the point in reading by claiming that high-speed trains are not as fuel efficient as the reading mentions. In fact, a new high-speed track would be built for some of the root but not for the whole root and trains must slow down when they travel on regular tracks. Thus, fuel emissions will not be reduced too much.
回忆10:
阅读
01.How Soil is Formed
泥土如何形成
2018.08.26,2016.05.28,2014.07.12
泥土形成是一个动态过程(a dynamic process),受到母体材料(parent material)、气候、地形(topography)和时间的影响。

母体材料是松散的一堆物质(unconsolidated mass),在此之上泥土开始形成。来源上看,母体材料可以是原处的地质基底物质(geological substrate),也可以是通过风吹、水流、冰川移动或重力沉降而从远处带来的沉淀物(sediment/deposit)。由于远方沉淀物的多样性,所以由远方沉淀物形成的泥土往往更肥沃(fertile)。不管母体材料的来源是什么,最终形成的泥土组成都是地质岩石类物质,例如火成岩(igneous rocks)、沉淀岩(sedimentary rocks)和变质岩(metamorphic rocks),这些岩石的化学组成决定了泥土的组成。

气候影响着风化过程的强度和性质(the intensity and nature of weathering),并且影响着当地植被类型(vegetation type),这些进而都对泥土形成产生影响。具体来看,日温差和季节温差导致泥土物质的冷热交替。直接暴露于太阳辐射下的泥土经历最极端的冷热交替;被植物覆盖的泥土经历较小波动。冷热交替导致泥土温度变化,温度变化又刺激或抑制(stimulate or inhibit)泥土内部的生物地理化学反应(biogeochemical reactions)。

水参与所有的生物地理化学反应,因为水是酸的载体(carrier of the acids)。水通过过滤(percolation)进入泥土,又通过蒸发(evaporation)离开,在这个过程中,水把其中悬浮的物质(suspended material)留在土壤里,把土壤当中的矿物质(mineral matter)溶解在水中又带向别处,这被称为滤取(leaching)。

地形(topography)也是泥土形成的重要影响因素。陡峭斜坡上(steep slopes)的泥土通常会顺着水流流走,冲到斜坡下方的平坦低洼的土地上(flat and low land)。所以斜坡上的泥土往往贫瘠而且干旱(arid),而下方低洼的泥土肥沃并且湿润。

植被、动物、细菌(bacteria)和真菌(fungi)都会影响泥土的形成。尤其是植物,是泥土有机物质(organic material)的来源,影响着泥土营养成分的含量。植物产生的有机酸(organic acids),会加速泥土的风化过程(accelerate the weathering process)。

岩石物质的风化、降解(decomposition)、矿物化(mineralization)、营养物质的积累,所有这些都需要大量的时间。发展完好的泥土通常需要2千年到2万年的时间。湿润地区的酸性泥土(acid soils)的发展只需要2千年,因为酸的存在加速了滤取过程(leaching process)。而干旱地区的泥土则发展缓慢。
further=additionally此外
fluctuations=variations变化,波动
inhibit=slow down抑制,使…放慢
impeded=restricted阻碍


真题原文
How Soil is Formed
Soil formation is a dynamic process that takes place in different environments. It is strongly influenced by the parent material, climate (largely vegetation and temperature and water exchanges), topography (the elevations, depressions, directions and angles of slopes, and other surface features of the landscape), and time.

The parent material is the unconsolidated mass on which soil formation takes place. This material may or may not be derived from the on-site geological substrate or bedrock on which it rests. Parent materials can be transported by wind, water, glaciers, and gravity and deposited on top of bedrock. Because of the diversity of materials involved, soils derived from transported parent materials are commonly more fertile than soils from parent materials derived in place. Whatever the parent material, whether derived in place from bedrock or from transported material, it ultimately comes from geological materials, such as igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, and the composition of the rocks largely determines the chemical composition of the soil.

Climate is most influential in determining the nature and intensity of weathering and the type of vegetation that further affects soil formation. The soil material experiences daily and seasonal variations in heating and cooling. Open surfaces exposed to thermal radiation undergo the greatest daily fluctuations in heating and cooling, soils covered with vegetation the least. Hill slopes facing the sun absorb more heat than those facing away from the sun. Radiant energy has a pronounced effect on the moisture regime, especially the evaporative process and dryness. Temperature can stimulate or inhibit biogeochemical reactions in soil material.

Water is involved in all biogeochemical reactions in the soil because it is the carrier of the acids that influence the weathering process. Water enters the soil material as a liquid and leaves it as a liquid by percolation (the slow movement of water through the soil’s pores) and as a gas through evaporation. The water regime—the water flow over a given time—in soil material is sporadic, and in many parts of the Earth is highly seasonal. Water that enters the soil during heavy rainfall and snowmelt moves down through the soil. As it moves, it leaves behind suspended material and may carry away mineral matter in solution, a process called leaching. On sloping land, water distributes material laterally (sideways) through the soil.

Topography is a major factor in soil development. More water runs off and less enters the soil on steep slopes than on relatively level land. Water draining from slopes enters the soil on low and flat land. Thus soils and soil material tend to be dry on slopes and moist on wet on the low land. Steep slopes are subject to surface erosion and soil creep—the downslope movement of soil material, which accumulates on lower slopes and lowlands.

Vegetation, animals, bacteria, and fungi all contribute to the formation of soil. Vegetation, in particular, is responsible for organic material in the soil and influences its nutrient content. For example, forests store most of their organic matter on the surface, whereas in grasslands most of the organic matter added to the soil comes from the deep fibrous root systems. Organic acids produced by vegetation accelerate the weathering process.

The weathering of rock material and the accumulation, decomposition, and mineralization or organic material require considerable time. Well-developed soils in equilibrium with weathering, erosion, and biotic influences may require 2,000 to 20,000 years for their formation, but soil differentiation from parent material may take place in as short a time as 30 years. Certain acid soils in humid regions develop in 2,000 years because the leaching process is speeded by acidic materials. Parent materials heavy in texture require a much longer time to develop into soils because of an impeded downward flow of water. Soils develop more slowly in dry regions than in humid ones. Soils on steep slopes often remain poorly developed regardless of geological age because rapid erosion removes soil nearly as fast as it is formed. Floodplain soils age little through time because of the continuous accumulation of new materials. Such soils are not deeply weathered and are more fertile than geologically old soils because they have not been exposed to the leaching process as long. The latter soils tend to be infertile because of long-time leaching of nutrients without replacement from fresh material.

02.Early Life-Forms and Earth’s Atmosphere
原始生命与地球大气
2019.02.23,2014.06.15
先讲了生物形成的条件,第一是离太阳的位置刚刚好;第二是先有bacteria,然后才有更加复杂的生物;原始的大气层是由一些methane和二氧化碳组成,温室气体,在当时太阳不是那么bright的时候(dim period)提供了一些热量,可以使早期生物生存;现在的地球是氢气和氧气主要组成,如果现在的大气层还和之前一样那么多methane和二氧化碳的话,地球会too hot for organisms to survive(这里考到一个题,早期和现在的大气区别);然后又说到细菌产生的氧气可以阻挡UV(紫外线),为生物提供protection,而其他planet没有氧气,所以生物无法生存。
altered = transformed 改变
emitted = released 释放
retarding = slowing 迟滞,延迟
abundant = plentiful 大量的
sustain = support 支持


真题原文
Early life-forms and Earth’s Atmosphere
Why has life flourished on Earth? This question has a two-part answer. First, Earth has been a cradle for life because of its position relative to the Sun. second, once life began on Earth, simple early life-forms (photosynthetic bacteria) slowly but inexorably altered the environment in a manner that not only maintained life but also paved the way for later, complex life-forms. These changes allowed later organisms to evolve and thrive. Humans and other higher organisms owe their life-supporting environment to these early life-forms.

Earth’s earliest atmosphere contained several gases: hydrogen, water vapor, ammonia, nitrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide, but no oxygen. Gas mixtures emitted from present-day volcanoes resemble this early atmosphere, suggesting its origin from volcanic eruptions. In Earth’s earliest atmosphere, methane and carbon dioxide occurred at much higher levels than at present—a circumstance that was favorable for early life. Methane and carbon dioxide are greenhouse gases that warm atmospheres by retarding loss of heat to space. These two gases kept Earth warm during the Sun’s early history, when the Sun did not burn as brightly as it now does. (An early dim period, with later brightening, is normal for stars of our Sun’s type.)

Earth’s modern atmosphere, which is 78 percent nitrogen gas, 21 percent oxygen, and about 1 percent argon, water vapor, ozone, and carbon dioxide, differs dramatically from the earliest atmosphere just described. The modern atmosphere supports many forms of complex life that would not have been able to exist in Earth’s first atmosphere because the oxygen level was too low. Also, if atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide were as abundant now as they were in Earth’s earliest atmosphere, the planet’s temperature would likely be too hot for most species living today. How and when did the atmosphere change?
The answer to this riddle lies in the metabolic activity of early photosynthetic life-forms that slowly but surely transformed the chemical composition of Earth’s atmosphere. Some of these early organisms were photosynthetic relatives of modern cyanobacteria (blue-green bacteria). In the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide gas combined with water yields oxygen. In Earth’s early days, all over the planet countless photosynthetic bacteria performed photosynthesis. Together, these ancient bacteria removed massive amounts of carbon dioxide from Earth’s atmosphere by converting it to solid organic carbon. These ancient bacteria also released huge quantities of oxygen into the atmosphere. Other ancient bacteria consumed methane, greatly reducing its amount in the atmosphere. When our Sun later became hotter, the continued removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane by early bacteria kept Earth’s climate from becoming too hot to sustain life. Modern cyanobacteria still provide these valuable services today.

The bacterial oxygen release improved conditions for life in two ways. First, oxygen is essential for the metabolic process known as cell respiration that allows cells to efficiently harvest energy from organic food. Second, oxygen in the upper atmosphere reacts to form a protective shield of ozone. Earth is constantly bombarded by harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun. Today, Earth’s upper-atmosphere ozone shield absorbs enough UV to allow diverse forms of life to survive. But because early Earth lacked oxygen in its atmosphere, it also lacked a protective ozone barrier. As a result, early life on Earth was confined to the oceans, where the water absorbed the UV radiation. Only after oxygen released by ancient bacteria drifted up into the upper atmosphere and reacted with other oxygen molecules to form a protective layer of ozone could life flourish at the surface and on the land. The absence of an oxygen atmosphere on Mars and other planets in our solar system means that these planets also lack an ozone shield that would protect surface-dwelling life from UV radiation. The surface of Mars is bombarded with deadly radiation; if any life exists on Mars, it would almost certainly be subterranean.
03.农业对欧洲经济的影响
欧洲经济衰退,农业发展也不好。
04.Magma
两种岩浆
2019.01.12
由于火山种类不同,会产生两种岩浆(magma),B与G,其中一种凝固速度快因为有大量二氧化硅(silica),还讲了压力(pressure)高低对其差异的影响。

话题拓展
岩浆形成原理图:
横坐标为温度,纵坐标为压强。crystals意为结晶,就是固体,liquid+crystals就是液体加固体,理解为固体开始融解。wet solidus是湿固相线,solidus是干固相线。当物质的状态,就是温度与压力所投影的点处在固相线的右下方时,该物质就会是固态+液态;当物质处在线上时,则是固态开始熔解的状态,同样的可以推理,当处在左上方时,就是固态。
核心信息:
湿的固体,比干的物体更容易达到熔融状态。一个物质,向熔融状态靠近,有三种办法:升温,降压,加水。甚至,三者相互结合。也就是说,在一些满足这些条件的区域,有机会产生岩浆。

01.升温
以美国为例,俯冲带,造山带与大陆内部相比,越剧烈的摩擦与挤压,产生越多的热量,相同深度情况下,造山带温度最高,俯冲带次之,大陆内部最低。挤压变形强烈的造山带与俯冲带容易形成岩浆。
02.降压
大洋中脊向外的扩张,就是这样一个降压的过程。前几年的冰岛火山爆发也不难理解,冰岛处于大西洋的洋中脊上。
03.加水
向右下角钻过去的就是大洋壳,它给地幔带去了大量的水,以及部分由陆地物质沉积,也就是易熔物质。
oceanic geotherm理解为洋壳的状态线。同样,黑色粗线与红色虚线是两条固相线。
上图能够提取的信息是这样:
1:洋壳达不到dry solidus(干的固体)熔融的条件,不会熔融。
2:100km到150km深度状态下,洋壳达到了wet solidus(湿的固体)标准,可以熔融。
150km左右的距离,远远超过了莫霍面,就是比地壳深,进入了地幔。 由图可知,此时的温度并不是特别的高,1100摄氏度左右的温度,并不能将地幔里的岩石完全溶解,但岩石里的部分矿物会变成液态熔融体,因为他们的熔点低,比如角闪石,长石,石英等矿物和许多挥发性组分,比如水。而熔不了的矿物将会保留在地幔,例如橄榄石。
随着熔融的进程进行,液态熔融体越聚越多,会转移到有足够空间的地方,这就是我们所说的岩浆。此时岩浆找到的存储空间成为岩浆房。

岩浆由深部(浅绿色区域)形成,转移到莫霍面(MOHO,深绿色),发生一系列演化,顺着裂隙向上运动。
而熔融体的密度远低于固态的剩余不熔物,由于密度差的关系,在压力下,它会向上运动,可以类比于浮力。当原来的上部岩石有裂隙时,岩浆就会顺着裂隙向上冲,向上走直到岩浆密度与周围岩石相近,岩浆就失去了向上的动力,于是停留,缓慢凝结,成为侵入岩。如果没有裂隙,但是岩浆很多,密度很小,岩浆可以直接侵位,就是向上冲坏围岩。如图。

密度足够小的话,它可以冲出地表,形成火山喷发。
关于岩浆的小科普:由岩浆冷凝而成的岩石成为火成岩。常见的火成岩造岩矿物有七种:橄榄石,辉石,角闪石,云母,长石,石英,似长石。不同的矿物组成与含量,通常意味着不同的岩石类型。也就是说,岩石的性质,颜色,密度,熔点,由组成矿物来决定。于是乎,岩浆就有了基性岩浆与酸性岩浆等等的差别。

05.叶子的不同形状
文章结构:并列。
话题拓展

针形 acicular
披针形 lanceolate
倒披针形 oblanceolate
条形 linear
剑形 ensiform
圆形 orbicular
矩圆形 oblong
椭圆形 elliptical
卵形 ovate
倒卵形 obovate
匙形 spoon-shaped
扇形 fan-shaped
镰形 falcate
心形 cordate
倒心形 obcordate
肾形 reniform
提琴形 pandurate
盾形 peltate
箭头形 sagittate
戟形 hastate
菱形 rhombic
三角形 triangular
鳞形 scale-like /squamiform
异形叶性 heterophylly
话题拓展
【树叶辨别】话题相似文章还有
Tree Species Identification in Tropical Rain Forests
2017.07.08,2017.03.11,2015.11.15

词汇题:
conspicuous = easily noticed 明显的
endure = withstand 忍受
surplus = extra 剩余的,额外的
task = job 任务


真题原文
Tree Species Identification in Tropical Rain Forests
Identifying tree species in tropical rain forests may be harder than you think .Plant species identification can be difficult for all kinds of reasonseven identification of trees ,which are big and conspicuous . For example,for some willow trees,both leaves and flowers may be needed for identification,but the two may not be present at the same time. Yet whatever problems may confront us in temperate climates,we can be sure that the tropics will pose far worse difficulties.

In tropical rain forests,the flowers of a given tree species are typically not in bloom and so cannot be observed. In seasonal rain forests (with a distinct wet season and a distinct dry season) , many trees adjust their flowering to the rains,so flowering is to some extent predictable. But much rain forest (as in much of the Amazon region) is nonseasonal ,and trees may flower at any time. To be sure,different trees of the same species generally flower simultaneously ,for if they did not,they could not pollinate each other. 80 they must be responding to signals from the environment at large,or else (or in addition) they must be communicating with one another. But what those signals are is unknown,at least to us. To the human observer,the flowering seems random. In any case ,in a tropical forest (at least in a secondary forest ,which is forest that is regrowing after previous harvesting or clearance) , the trees grow very close together,and most are remarkably thin,like poles,and grow straight up and disappear into the gloom,twenty meters overhead . Even if there are flowers, you would not necessarily see them .
The leaves may not be accommodating either,at least when viewed from the ground. Rain-forest trees all face the same kinds of conditions and have adapted in the same general kinds of way. Rain forests are wet by definition. But in some there is a dry season ,and even when there is not,it doesn't rain all the time. Thus the forest floor may be moist,but the topmost leaves of the canopy are far above it and are exposed to the fiercest sun. 80 the uppermost leaves must resist desiccation (drying out). Yet from time to time,and in due season every day,they must also endure tremendous downpours. Leaves that can cope with such contrasts tend to be thick and leathery (to resist drought) ,oval in shape,and have a prection at the end known as a drip tip to let surplus rain run off the leaf. Many hundreds of trees from dozens of only distantly related families have leaves of this general type. But even if you can distinguish individual leaves,it is hard to be certain if they belong to the tree you are interested in or to the one next to itor to some epiphyte (a plant that grows on other plants) or liana (vine) slung over its branches. Often,in short,researchers must base their identification of a tree on the bark of its trunk. The trunks of tropical trees are sometimes highly characteristic ,being deeply furrowed or twisted ,but in most species the bark is simply smooth and gray,dappled with lichen and moss.

In a temperate forest you can be fairly sure that any one tree is the same species as the one next to itor,at least,it will be one of a list that is unlikely to exceed more than half a dozen (oak with ash in much of Britain; lodgepole pine with aspen in the northernmost reaches of North America ; alder, 8cotch pine,and spruce in the Baltic ; and so on). But in the Amazon in particular,you can be fairly sure that any one tree is not the same species as the one next to it. Often there is a third of a mile between any two trees of the same species ,and there can be up to 120 different species of trees in any one acre . 80 the task ,often,is to identify an individual tree that may be not much thicker than your arm from the appearance of its bark, out of a totallist of several hundred (or thousand) possibilities which may well include some that have not been described before,so that ther e is nothing to refer back to.
06.荷兰绘画
荷兰中间阶层的出现促进了艺术家发展(提到了原因、形式等),对久远画作的时间鉴别(背景、画和现实社会的联系、鉴别的直接和间接方法)。
07.谷物的优点
2018.09.02
Root和grain的营养问题。
话题拓展
【粮食】主题类似文章还有
Gathering Seeds from Wild Grasses
2018.01.27 (年度新题)
第1段:很难确定人们在哪里首次开始收割自己种植的植物,但考古证据显示早在1.5万年前人们就开始这么做了,而且到1.1万年前,这一做法广为流传(widespread),其中之一的证据来自被磨的锋利的石器工具用于收割谷物(引入话题)
第2段:谷物虽然很容易收集,但是它们必须在坠落到地上之前快速被收集、食用之前还需要对它们进行很多加工工作、与肉和坚果相比它们也不是什么丰富的蛋白质来源的食物,那么为什么人类会在1.3万年前选择大量收集它们?虽然,这些谷物数量众多,生长的很丰盛,便于储藏,保持干燥一整年都不会变坏,并且易于被人类肠胃吸收,但是考虑到谷物的缺点以及人类先前丝毫没有关注过它们,那么此时选择它们一定是有特殊原因的,所以人类此时选择谷物作为食物是必然所使而不是他们自己的主观选择,即,此时,动物性食物已经被过度开发了,并且人口数量大大增长已经超出了土地所承受的范围,所以必然被迫而选择了收集谷物作为食物。(本段多次出现让步转折,逻辑拐点次数较多,考生需抓住作者重心所在;这一段是学术文章的典型的原因分析段落,即为什么收集谷物会出现)
第3段:一旦大量收集谷物会给社会带来巨大变化,其中之一就是需要靠近这些谷物生长地全年居住,建立起定居的生活方式(sedentary lifestyle)。(此段是结果影响段落,即收集谷物带来的后续影响)
第4段:这种全年定居的采摘谷物的人类社会首先出现在肥沃的新月地带(Fertile Crescent),这里的气候特备适合谷物生长(长、干夏天和温暖湿润的冬天),谷物种类丰富,并且靠近地中海还可以获取海洋食物,人们偶尔也会打猎,因为瞪羚等动物的图案出现在这一时期的人类的艺术品上,如新月地带的Natufian人的小雕塑上有动物图案,但最终这些动物都由于过度猎杀而灭绝了,而大量的镰刀(sickle),研钵(mortar),研磨石板(grinding slab)等表明了收集谷物的盛行。(此段是上段的例证段落)

词汇题:
in profusion = abundantly 丰富地
readily = easily 轻易地
eventually = finally 最终

【谷物收集】主题类似文章还有
Grain in Colonial North America
2017.06.25,2014.12.13

词汇题:
preserving = maintaining 保留
substantial = sufficient 大量的
compelled = required 强迫的
obligations = responsibilities 义务
真题原文
Grain in Colonial North America
Although the colonists of seventeenth- and early-eighteenth-century British North America consumed most of the grain produced in the colonial economy, few households were self-sufficient. Instead, they traded with their neighbors for what they did not produce themselves. In any given year, farmers who produced more grain than they needed would exchange their surpluses locally with other farmers who had different surpluses, with local laborers who supported themselves by selling their labor, or with the local storekeeper, who might also be the miller (trade person who ground grain into flour). Satisfying the domestic demand for breadstuff, then, depended on trade between neighbors. The colonists recorded these myriad transactions as credits and debts in their individual account books. Debts and credits could remain outstanding for years before being settled. Trading based on book credit gave more value to maintaining equilibrium between local supply and demand and to preserving a cooperative spirit among neighbors than to expanding production beyond the immediate needs of the locality.

Colonists   also   traded   grain   surpluses   long-distance,   responding   to impersonal demand beyond the community. Some of the long-distance trade catered to regional and urban domestic demand. As the urban areas matured, they  increasingly relied on producers in distant areas for grain and  other agricultural supplies. In the early 1750s, the most densely populated towns of eastern   and   southern   New   England  had begun importing substantial quantities of flour and rice from the  middle and southern colonies to compensate for grain deficits  that developed in their region. Other urban areas followed their example, though their greater proximity to grain regions enabled them to tap supplies closer to home. Assuming that in the early 1770s at least half of the demand for grain from farmers with surpluses was satisfied through   long-distance   channels,   the  proportion of grain produced for consumption beyond the local market probably accounted for about a quarter of total grain production consumed by humans.

The colonists organized the long-distance grain economy differently from their local economy. New mechanisms enabled the long-distance economy to respond sensitively to variations in demand, and these in turn gave it greater dynamism than the community-centered, local economy possessed. The contrast between the local and long-distance grain trade is best illustrated by looking at the flour-milling industry.

Nearly every area of colonial settlement had a local gristmill to which farmers brought grain to be custom ground. The limited capital value of most custom mills, the need to process rye and corn as well as wheat, together with seasonal factors affecting the water supply, restricted the volume of wheat flour that could be produced. The production of flour for long-distance exchange and particularly for export usually took place in merchant mills that were larger, had more capital, and were increasingly specialized.

The difference between a merchant mill and a custom mill was one of degree as much as kind. Most merchant mills had started as custom mills, and the colonial and state governments often compelled merchant mills to set aside certain days for custom work. Mills that acquired the designation “merchant” did so because they catered to the demand of merchants in the principal ports. These merchants enabled certain millers to specialize in wheat flour by placing orders for large parcels of it and paying in cash. That in turn allowed the millers to offer cash to the primary producers and grain brokers who delivered wheat to their mills. Cash was the economic motivator of this export-oriented economy for the simple reason that farmers would prepare and haul their grain to landings and mills and even increase their wheat acreage to obtain this commodity.

Cash gave farmers choices they did not enjoy when they traded with neighbors alone. Beyond opening up access to a range of products that could not be produced locally, it freed them from the web of mutual indebtedness and allowed more choices in the selection of trading partners. In other words, the cash economy allowed producers to seek the best bargains in that wider, impersonal market of which the export of agricultural surpluses formed the principal part. Of course, few in this age would have welcomed total release from the support and obligations that local trade conferred.
08.Hermit Crabs
寄居蟹
2018.10.20
寄居蟹(hermit crabs)会排队等壳。它们不会捕杀蜗牛,一种左撇子寄居蟹除外。
09.A Debate about Dinosaurs
关于恐龙的讨论
2019.05.04,2018.12.08,2017.11.18
恐龙是恒温还是变温动物。恐龙大部分都是后腿比前腿有力且长,除了一个叫B的恐龙。大部分都能做到用尾巴作为第三条腿,除了B,因为B想这样的话需要有很大的心脏供血,否则就会晕倒。然后讲了恐龙的中空的身体结构,可以直接吸收氧气然后从肺部呼出,不用先吸氧到肺再呼出,和鸟类似。
10.类似金字塔的建筑
【金字塔】话题重复
Pyramid Saqqara 塞加拉金字塔  2018.03.10,2016.10.22
11.Bird Colonies
鸟类群居
2019.04.13,2018.11.25, 2018.05.12, 2017.09.24, 2017.09.09,2017.04.15,2014.04.19

先说了在什么情况下鸟会聚集在一起,即集群(colony)。举了一种黄色小鸟的例子,在colony边缘的窝要比中心的窝更易损(vulnerable),所以colony中心的鸟窝分布密度很大。

鸟类住在colony当中有好处也有坏处,好处是比如可以躲避predator、一起孵蛋(hatch eggs)、share食物信息等。其中对付predator的手段有三种:一是集群攻击,二是用废弃的窝(abandoned nest)和新窝混合在一起迷惑敌人,三是把窝建在W鸟窝的周围,predator就不会靠近。这些方法中,一三鸟群受到的伤害最少。关于一起孵蛋,即便有被天敌吃掉的蛋,但总会有漏网之鱼(outnumber)活下来。最后说到食物来源(food supply),colony一般在食物来源的周围分布,还说到了一个食物丰富的地方,但是给鸟类留下的落脚点很少,所以就会使鸟群集中。

群居的坏处是容易感染寄生虫(parasite)带来疾病的传播,这一劣势的影响极其严重,肯能从而导致群体灭绝。文章最后表明作者态度,他认为利大于弊(advantages outweigh the disadvantages)。
vicinity=region(临近)地区
contribute to=add to促进
exhaust=use up耗尽
on balance=overall总的来说

真题再现
【句子简化题】
Because nests at the edges of breeding colonies are more vulnerable to predators than those in the centers, the preference for advantageous central sites promotes dense centralized packing of nests.

It is more advantageous for birds to choose central locations for their colonies rather than locations near the edges of their territory.


Compared to nests at the edges of colonies, centrally located nests are preferred for their safety from predators and therefore are more densely packed together.


Predators generally prefer the densely packed, central portion of nesting colonies, which can make this part of the colony more vulnerable to predators.


Birds nesting in colonies that are vulnerable to predators tend to prefer more densely packed nests to those less densely packed.
【解析】
正确答案是B,最大干扰项为A。原句意思是:因为繁育鸟群中的边缘巢穴比中央巢穴更易受捕猎者的攻击,所以对这些有优势的中央巢穴的偏爱就推动了紧密化的向中央集中的压缩筑巢。A选项的意思是,对鸟儿更有优势的是去选择它们领土当中的中央区而不是领土边缘区来为它们的种群筑造巢穴。大家体会出与原句的细微差别了吧,虽是细微差别,但意思立马变味。把A微调两个单词,就对了,即:
It is more advantageous for birds to choose central locations for their nest buildings rather than locations near the edges of their colonies.


真题原文
Bird Colonies
About 13 percent of bird species, including most seabirds, nest in colonies. Colonial nesting evolves in response to a combination of two environmental conditions: (1) a shortage of nesting sites that are safe from predators and (2) abundant or unpredictable food that is distant from safe nest sites. First and foremost, individual birds are safer in colonies that are inaccessible to predators, as on small rocky islands. In addition, colonial birds detect predators more quickly than do small groups or  pairs and can drive the predators from the vicinity of the nesting area. Because nests at the edges of breeding colonies are more vulnerable to predators than those in the centers, the preference for advantageous central sites promotes dense centralized packing of nests.

The yellow-rumped cacique, which nests in colonies in Amazonian Peru, demonstrates how colonial birds prevent predation. These tropical blackbirds defend their closed, pouchlike nests against predators in three ways. First, by nesting on islands and near wasp nests, caciques are safe from arboreal mammals such primates. Second, caciques mob predators (work together as a group to attack predators). The effectiveness of mobbing increases with group size, which increases with colony size. Third, caciques hide their nests from predators by mixing active nests with abandoned nests. Overall, nests in cluster on islands and near wasp nests suffer the least predation.
Coordinated social interactions tend to be weak when a colony is first forming, but true colonies provide extra benefits. Synchronized nesting, for example, produces a sudden abundance of eggs and chicks that exceeds the daily needs of local predators. Additionally, colonial neighbors can improve their foraging by watching others. This behavior is especially valuable when the off-site food supplies are restricted or variable in location, as are swarms of aerial insects harvested by swallows. The colonies of American cliff swallows, for example, serve as information centers from which unsuccessful individual birds follow successful neighbors to good feeding sites. Cliff swallows that are unable to find food return to their colony, locate a neighbor that has been successful, and then follow that neighbor to its food source. All birds in the colony are equally likely to follow or to be followed and thus contribute to the sharing of information that helps to ensure their reproductive success. As a result of their enhanced foraging efficiency, parent swallows in large colonies return with food for their nestlings more often and bring more food each trip than do parents in small colonies.

To support large congregations of birds, suitable colony sites must be near rich, clumped food supplies. Colonies of pinyon jays and red crossbills settle near seed-rich conifer forests, and wattled starlings nest in large colonies near locust outbreaks. The huge colonies of guanay cormorants and other seabirds that nest on the coast of Peru depend on the productive cold waters of the Humboldt Current. The combination of abundant food in the Humboldt Current and the vastness of oceanic habitat can support enormous populations of seabirds, which concentrate at the few available nesting locations. The populations crash when their food supplies decline during El Nino years.

Among the costs, colonial nesting leads to increased competition for nest sites and mates, the stealing of nest materials, and increased physical interference among other effects. In spite of food abundance, large colonies sometimes exhaust their local food supplies and abandon their nests. Large groups also attract predators, especially raptors, and facilitate the spread of parasites and diseases. The globular mud nests in large colonies of the American cliff swallow, for example, are more likely to be infested by fleas or other bloodsucking parasites than are nests in small colonies. Experiments in which some burrows were fumigated to kill the parasites showed that these parasites lowered survivorship by as much as 50 percent in large colonies but not significantly in small ones. The swallows inspect and then select parasite-free nests in large colonies, they tend to build new nests rather than use old, infested ones. On balance, the advantages of colonial nesting clearly outweigh the disadvantages, given the many times at which colonial nesting has evolved independently among different groups of birds. Still lacking, however, is a general framework for testing different hypothesis for the evolution of coloniality.
12.非洲岩壁画
背景知识可自行百度词条“非洲岩画”
【壁画】话题重复
Murals, Frescoes, and Easel Paintings 壁画,湿画和支架画
2018.03.10,2018.10.28
The Sistine Ceiling 西斯廷壁顶绘画
2019.03.16,2017.12.02,2016.12.11
【岩石艺术】话题重复
Cave and Rock Art 洞穴与岩石艺术
2019.05.04,2017.07.08,2016.09.11
13.The Multiplier Effect
乘数效应(爱琴海迈锡尼文明)
2015.05.16加场
第一段:外来文明导致爱琴海的双M文明起源。M文明通过贸易输出到爱琴海,土耳其的A文明入侵带来文化。
第二段:CR教授的反面观点。缺乏A文明入侵或迁徙的证据,即A不能导致爱琴海文明的产生;贸易也不足以带来文明;爱琴海文明产生的真正原因在于自给自足的经济和青铜冶炼技术的引入。
第三段:农业发展导致社会发展。本来希腊以庄稼和放羊为主,葡萄和橄榄树变得非常重要,而且具备各种优势,从而带来了农产品产量的增加、人口随之增长,最终出现了专门的职业工匠。
第四段:青铜及工具引起的社会变化。青铜出现,用来制作工具武器等,珠宝制作、木工、造船业随之发展;为了控制生产,社会阶级和争斗出现,也产生了一些军事领袖,他们控制生产和分配,为了记录和计量,最终产生了文字。
第五段:multiplier effect理论。一个因素效果太小,多个因素会共同起作用。农业支持手工业的发展,青铜的出现支持了新技术的产生发展最终产生新产品,这其中用变化催生新的变化,是一个正反馈的循环。从自给自足、平等的农业社会变为繁荣、有阶级差异、存在斗争的酋邦社会。
justify = provide a rational basis for 合理化
promoted = encouraged 促进
simultaneous = at the same time 同时地
hierarchical = having several levels of authority 阶级的


真题原文
The Multiplier Effect

The causes behind the rapid development of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations in the Aegean during the late third and second millennia B.C.E. have intrigued scholars for years. Until recently, most explanations attributed Aegean development to outside influence. Civilization had emerged in Mesopotamia by 3000 B.C.E, and, some archeologists argued, Mesopotamian trade introduced civilized ideas and technological innovations into nearby, less advanced areas. Others hypothesized that civilization was brought to the Aegean by invasion from some adjacent region, of which Anatolia in modern Turkey seemed the most plausible.

In a work published in 1972, Professor Colin Renfrew approached the problem from a different viewpoint. He argued that the scanty available evidence for invasion or immigration from Anatolia into Greece in the early Bronze Age (about 3300-2200 B.C.E.) showed that, at most, such incursion was limited, and that it could not be regarded as responsible for the transformation of society there. Trade, though clearly documented, was also an inadequate explanation in itself. To understand the major changes in social organization and complexity that took place, it was necessary, said Renfrew, to determine the impact that new variables emerging in the early Bronze Age may have had on every interrelated aspect of the local social system. The two new major developments he considered were changes in the subsistence economy and the introduction of bronze metallurgy.

The economy of Neolithic Greece was based on growing grains and raising sheep. Early in the third millennium B.C.E., cultivation of grape vines and olive trees also became important in southern Greece and the Aegean Islands. Both crops were eminently suitable for trade and storage in the form of olive oil and wine. They were grown on land that was not suitable for grain farming. Their cultivation required work at a different time of year from that needed by grain crops, and much of this work, such as harvesting, was relatively light. As a result, agricultural yields were substantially increased without disrupting established agricultural practice. That increase in turn allowed, or stimulated, population growth. For the first time there was enough demand for specialized crafts and services to justify the existence of full-time craftspeople, who could be supported from the extra agricultural output.
Some copper artifacts were made during the fourth millennium B.C.E, but there were not many  of them and they had little economic or social significance. When, in the third  millennium, copper began to be mixed with tin to produce the relatively hard alloy bronze, demand for metal goods grew. Bronze could be used to make a range of useful new tools and weapons and a variety of impressive ornaments. The demand for metalwork stimulated further specialization in crafts such as toolmaking and jewelry making. The new tools promoted the development of other crafts, like carpentry and shipbuilding. Competition for prestigious or useful craft products and for control of their producers helped to heighten both social differences within communities and conflicts between them, resulting in the emergence of local chieftains, who were also in many instances warriors. These chieftains regulated agricultural and craft production, operating a distribution system through which the farmers could obtain tools or ornaments they needed or wanted. The organizational demands of controlled distribution made it necessary to develop methods of measurement and recording, which led to the development of writing.

Renfrew argued that any single innovation would have had a limited or negligible effect on social organization because the inherently conservative nature of societies acts to minimize change. However, the interaction of several simultaneous developments created a multiplier effect. In the Aegean, increased agricultural productivity provided the means to support craft specialization, while bronze metallurgy provided the technology for producing highly valued new products. These factors set in motion a series of changes in other subsystems of society. Those changes in turn resulted in what, in a term borrowed from electronics, are called positive feedback loops—alterations in the workings of a social system that serve to reinforce themselves. Thus Aegean society was transformed from one consisting of basically self-sufficient and egalitarian farming villages to one of prosperous, hierarchical chiefdoms, with palace-dwelling rulers, actively competing with one another both at home and in international trade.
回忆11:
写 作
Integrated Writing
Reading
在美国建立一个往返旧金山和洛杉矶的铁路是有好处的
1.降低公路维修成本,人们就可以放弃驾车而选择乘坐高铁,
2.缓解交通堵塞,高铁系统已经帮助了一些东部地区缓解了交通堵塞问题;
3.高铁最环保的交通方式,因为节省燃料,减少大量的有害气体排放。

Listening
建立这个铁路系统不好;
1.建立一个高铁系统比修护公路更贵,建一个全新的铁路系统,加利福尼亚州需要借1000亿美元,相当于加州全年税收的75%,这一大笔钱是很难独立偿还的,会使加利福尼亚州出现财政危机;
2.是否缓解交通压力取决于乘坐高铁是否比驾车更方便,美国东部城市的公共交通线路很普遍,很容易到达高铁站;但西部城市的公共交通很稀少,西海岸的居民驾车比乘坐高铁更方便;
3.一些区域的轨道是承受不了高速的高铁的,高铁必须要降速行驶才能通过这些区域,这时高铁会排放出较多的有害气体。

Independent Writing
Do you agree or disagree with the followingstatement? Many schools require young children(aged5-11)to study together in small groups instead ofstudying alone. Requiring children to study in groups is the best way to teachthem.
立场:要求5-11岁的孩子们在小组学习是最好的教育方式(对比自己学习)
主体段思路:
效率:
要求5-11岁的孩子们在小组学习---每个孩子负责任务的一个部分---5-11岁的孩子没有很强的整体意识---能够比较有效地完成自己的小部分任务---学会如果推进任务的进程---学会有效地完成任务;但是一个人学习,会让他们一直无法完成整个学习任务;
个性:
要求5-11岁的孩子们在小组学习---每个人都是一个组中重要的部分---相互之间会需要帮助和协作---让孩子们意识到自己并不是最重要的---学会和别人相处---培养更好的个性;但是一个人学习就没有任何配合的意思,不是一个很好的教育方式;
健康:
要求5-11岁的孩子们在小组学习---孩子们面对的是一个比较小的任务点---并且会意识到有自己的同伴一起学习---心理会有陪伴感---会比较没有压力地学习;但是一个人学习,孩子们会比较孤单,5-11岁的小朋友不会排除这种情绪,会很烦躁。
回忆12:
口 语
TASK1
Talk about one advantage and disadvantageof communicating through a video call and an app.
解析:这兼职是大家的日常,素材随处可取,套上答题结构,完事儿~好处:比较方便;举例:和远在国外的朋友视频聊天;坏处:沟通效率低,举例:开视频会议,老有人分心,同一个问题要说好几遍
TASK2
Agree or disagree:school should no longer require students to do experiment, but showstudents the videos of experiments.why?
TASK3
阅读:学校提议开展租自行车的项目;原因1:可以减少交通拥堵;原因2:可以让学生锻炼身体
听力:男生同意;原因1:学校太大,宿舍到教学楼必须开车,如果有自行车的话,就不用开车了;原因2:课业繁重,如果骑车就不需要额外找时间锻炼身体了
TASK4
定义:Characteristicdisplacement 同一个物种,在不一样的环境里会进化出不同的特征
举例:一种鱼,一种体型大,一种体型小。小的鱼嘴小,身体是多骨的,所以会吃小的prey,大的鱼,反之
TASK5
问题:女生受邀出席生物会议,但是她的朋友要来找他,时间冲突了。
方案1:带朋友一起出席会议;缺点:朋友肯定不乐意
方案2:reschedule和朋友的约会;缺点:又要让朋友请假,朋友周末都有工作,不好意思
TASK6
气候和房屋设计的关系;举例1:沙漠里的房子,建房子的材料就很特殊;举例2:山上的房子,房子的屋顶
回忆13:
阅读
Soil Profile: Darkened topsoil and reddish subsoil layers are typicalin some regions.
How Soil is Formed(14年7月12日考题,土壤如何形成)
The Multiplier Effect(14年5月11日考题;Renfrew argued that any singleinnovation would have had a limited or negligible effect on social organizationbecause the inherently conservative nature of societies acts to minimizechange. However, the interaction of several simultaneous developments created amultiplier effect. In the Aegean, increased agricultural productivity providedthe means to support craft specialization, while bronze metallurgy provided thetechnology for producing highly valued new products. These factors set inmotion a series of changes in other subsystems of society. Those changes inturn resulted in what, in a term borrowed from electronics, are called positivefeedback loops—alterations in the workings of a social system that serve toreinforce themselves. Thus Aegean society was transformed from one consistingof basically self-sufficient and egalitarian farming villages to one ofprosperous, hierarchical chiefdoms, with palace-dwelling rulers, activelycompeting with one another both at home and in international trade.)

The Origin of Earth's Atmosphere地球大气起源(15年3月14日考题)
恐龙是恒温动物endotherm还是变温动物poikilotherm(19年5月4日考题)
两种不同的岩浆(19年1月12日考题)

寄居蟹
类似于金字塔的某种建筑
叶子的不同形状
鸟筑巢的条件

背景知识
hermit crab寄居蟹
A hermit crab emerges from itsshell

As hermitcrabs grow, they require larger shells. Since suitable intact gastropod shellsare sometimes a limited resource, vigorous competition often occurs amonghermit crabs for shells. The availability of empty shells at any given placedepends on the relative abundance of gastropods and hermit crabs, matched forsize. An equally important issue is the population of organisms that prey upongastropods and leave the shells intact. Hermit crabs kept together may fight orkill a competitor to gain access to the shell they favour. However, if thecrabs vary significantly in size, the occurrence of fights over empty shellswill decrease or remain nonexistent. Hermit crabs with too-small shells cannotgrow as fast as those with well-fitting shells, and are more likely to be eatenif they cannot retract completely into the shell.

As thehermit crab grows in size, it must find a larger shell and abandon the previousone. Several hermit crab species, both terrestrial and marine, have beenobserved forming a vacancy chain to exchange shells. When an individual crabfinds a new empty shell it will leave its own shell and inspect the vacantshell for size. If the shell is found to be too large, the crab goes back to itsown shell and then waits by the vacant shell for up to 8 hours. As new crabsarrive they also inspect the shell and, if it is too big, wait with the others,forming a group of up to 20 individuals, holding onto each other in a line fromthe largest to the smallest crab. As soon as a crab arrives that is the rightsize for the vacant shell and claims it, leaving its old shell vacant, then allthe crabs in the queue swiftly exchange shells in sequence, each one moving upto the next size. Hermit crabs often "gang up" on one of theirspecies with what they perceive to be a better shell, and pry its shell awayfrom it before competing for it until one takes it over.


真题回顾
How Soil is Formed(14年7月12日考题,土壤如何形成)

The parent material is theunconsolidated mass on which soil formation takes place. This material may ormay not be derived from the on-site geological substrate or bedrock on which itrests. Parent materials can be transported by wind, water, glaciers, andgravity and deposited on top of bedrock. Because of the diversity of materialsinvolved, soils derived from transported parent materials are commonly morefertile than soils from parent materials derived in place. Whateverthe parent material, whether derived in place from bedrock or from transportedmaterial, it ultimately comes from geological materials, such as igneous,sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, and the composition of the rocks largelydetermines the chemical composition of the soil.

Which of the sentences below bestexpresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essentialinformation.

Transported parent materials,parent materials derived in place from bedrock, and various kinds of rocks allcontribute to the composition of a soil.
The chemical composition of a soilis ultimately determined by the geological materials from which it forms,regardless of where or how the parent material originates.
The parent material from which asoil is formed ultimately comes from igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
The composition of the geologicalmaterials from which the parent material was originally derived can bedetermined by studying the chemical composition of the soil.
答案:B

词汇题
exceedingly=extremely
notably=striking
diminish=reduce
further=additionally
fluctuations=variations
inhibit=slow down
impeded=restricted
justify=provide a rational basis for
promoted=encouraged
several simultaneous developments=developments that occurred at the sametime
hierarchical=having several levels of authority

回忆14:
听 力
对话内容:
学生问教授如何写论文,如何论证观点。
学生想去博物馆兼职,去做自己专业相关的岗位。
学生找advisor讨论自己职业的方向选择 。
学生想换宿舍。
学生跟环科老师探讨一种植物。
学生找教授讨论一种玻璃制品。

讲座内容:
Astronomy:教授介绍了黑洞,谈到了dark matter和white dwarf,他们也可以保证温度适合,所以有液态水。
Biology:教授介绍了猴子的三种视觉:第一种是T,第二种是D,第三种是M。T是像人类一样可以辨别颜色,D是红绿色盲。提到TEM的一种猴子,公的全是色盲,母的有一部分是色盲,一部分可以辨别颜色。
Literature:教授讲一种Modern movement的文学体系、时代背景、文学体系特征。
Ecology:教授介绍了生态环境里的Niche。
Economics:教授介绍了麦肯锡策略。
Art:漆雕。
回忆15:



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特别提醒:托福考试几十多年来,有非常严格的规律性和出题思路。全世界有6到10个托福大考区,而只有一个美国托福考试中心几个人在出题,每个考区每个月要出2-4份考卷,一个月出12-24份考卷,考官如何保证达到难度一样呢,如何保证新题难度、准确度和评价机制公平呢,所以只能是几十年来托福真题题库旧题目的有效组合,新题不能超出10%。事实上每份托福真题卷子都是80%-90%以上旧题原题真题。近年来,阅读几套卷里大多是老题,ETS今年虽然在考试形式上变化很多,但其实使用的新题非常少,大都是在重复2014-2018年大陆考过的老题。这一方面说明,ETS出题成本太高(80万美金一套),所以出新题量小。另一方面说明,托福考试的整体趋势还是稳定的。形式上的变化(多套试卷,阅读加试,听力非经典加试),并不能改变这个考试的内在。除了阅读之外,听力,口语和写作都大部分是重复老题。多年托福考官和专家Edward老师非常熟悉托福出题规律和听说读写题库出题组合卷子的秘诀, CPU资料因此而诞生!具体请阅读http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-231387-1-1.html


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