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[全国] 2020年8月1日澳洲,新西兰,香港、马来西亚、越南、泰国...

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发表于 2020-7-27 17:51:46 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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2020年8月1日澳洲,新西兰,香港、马来西亚、越南、泰国(Bangkok曼谷等城市)、迪拜、日本、新加坡、韩国、台湾、菲律宾等亚太考区雅思A类、G真题回忆汇总(听说读写答案+机经整理汇总)
回忆1:
小作文: 柱状图,男女在三个不同年份分别用电脑工作和娱乐的时间
大作文: 人们愈发浪费粮食原因,解决办法
回忆2:
阅读回忆:
Passage1: British tropical butterfly farm
Passage3: 人类探测火星
回忆3:
亚太阅读
第一篇:蝴蝶农场
原文:
A
THERE’S no animal that symbolises rainforest diversity quite as spectacularly as the tropical butterfly. Anyone lucky enough to see these creatures flitting between patches of sunlight cannot fail to be impressed by the variety of theirpatterns. But why do they display such colourful exuberance? Until recently, this was almost as pertinent a question as it had been when the 19th-century naturalists, armed only with butterfly nets and insatiable curiosity, battled through the rainforests. These early explorers soon realised that although some of the butterflies’ bright colours are there to attract a mate, others are warning signals. They send out a message to any predators: “Keep off, we're poisonous.” And because wearing certain patterns affords protection, other species copy them. Biologists use the term “mimicry rings” for these clusters of impostors and their evolutionary idol.
B
But here's the conundrum. “Classical mimicry theory says that only a single ring should be found in any one area,” explains George Beccaloni of the Natural History Museum, London. The idea is that in each locality there should be just the one pattern that best protects its wearers. Predators would quickly learn to avoid it and eventually all mimetic species in a region should converge upon it. “The fact that this is patently not the case has been one of the major problems in mimicry research,” says Beccaloni. In pursuit of a solution to the mystery of mimetic exuberance, Beccaloni set off for one of the megacentres for butterfly diversity, the point where the western edge of the Amazon basin meets the foothills of the Andes in Ecuador. “It’s exceptionally rich, but comparatively well collected, so I pretty much knew what was there, says Beccaloni.” The trick was to work out how all the butterflies were organised and how this related to mimicry.”
C
Working at the Jatun Sacha Biological Research Station on the banks of the Rio Napo, Beccaloni focused his attention on a group of butterflies
called ithomiines. These distant relatives of Britain’s Camberwell Beauty are abundant throughout Central and South America and the Caribbean.
They are famous for their bright colours, toxic bodies and complex mimetic relationships. “They can comprise up to 85 per cent of the individuals in a mimicry ring and their patterns are mimicked not just by butterflies, but by other insects as diverse as damselflies and true bugs,” says Philip DeVries of the Milwaukee Public Museum’s Center for Biodiversity Studies.
D
Even though all ithomiines are poisonous, it is in their interests to evolve to look like one another because predators that learn to avoid one species
will also avoid others that resemble it. This is known as Miillerian mimicry. Mimicry rings may also contain insects that are not toxic, but gain protection by looking likes a model species that is: an adaptation called Batesian mimicry. So strong is an experienced predator’s avoidance response that even quite inept resemblance gives some protection. “Often there will be a whole series of species that mimic, with varying degrees of verisimilitude, a focal or model species,” says John Turner from the University of Leeds. “The results of these deceptions are some of the most exquisite examples of evolution known to science.” In addition to colour, many mimics copy behaviours and even the flight pattern of their model species.
E
But why are there so many different mimicry rings? One idea is that species flying at the same height in the forest canopy evolve to look like one another. “It had been suggested since the 1970s that mimicry complexes were stratified by flight height,” says DeVries. The idea is that wing colour patterns are camouflaged against the different patterns of light and shadow at each level in the canopy, providing a first line of defence against predators.” But the light patterns and wing patterns don’t match very well,” he says. And observations show that the insects do not shift in height as the day progresses and the light patterns change. Worse still, according to DeVries, this theory doesn’t explain why the model species is flying at that particular height in the first place.
F
“When I first went out to Ecuador, I didn’t believe the flight height hypothesis and set out to test it,” says Beccaloni.”A few weeks with the collecting net convinced me otherwise. They really flew that way.” What he didn’t accept, however, was the explanation about light patterns. “I thought, if this idea really is true, and I can work out why, it could help explain why there are so many different warning patterns in any one place. Then we might finally understand how they could evolve in such a complex way.” The job was complicated by the sheer diversity of species involved at Jatun Sacha. Not only were there 56 ithomiine butterfly species divided among eight mimicry rings, there were also 69 other insect species, including 34 day-flying moths and a damselfly, all in a 200-hectare study area. Like many entomologists before him, Beccaloni used a large bag-like net to capture his prey. This allowed him to sample the 2.5 metres immediately above the forest floor. Unlike many previous workers, he kept very precise notes on exactly where he caught his specimens.
G
The attention to detail paid off. Beccaloni found that the mimicry rings were flying at two quite separate altitudes. “Their use of the forest was quite distinctive,” he recalls. “For example, most members of the clear-winged mimicry ring would fly close to the forest floor, while the majority of the 12 species in the tiger-winged ring fly high up.” Each mimicry ring had its own characteristic flight height.
H
However, this being practice rather than theory, things were a bit fuzzy. “They'd spend the majority of their time flying at a certain height. But they'd also spend a smaller proportion of their time flying at other heights,” Beccaloni admits. Species weren’t stacked rigidly like passenger jets waiting to land, but they did appear to have a preferred airspace in the forest. So far, so good, but he still hadn’t explained what causes the various groups of ithomiines and their chromatic consorts to fly in formations at these particular heights.
I
Then Beccaloni had a bright idea. “I started looking at the distribution of ithomiine larval food plants within the canopy,” he says. “For each one I’d record the height to which the host plant grew and the height above the ground at which the eggs or larvae were found. Once I got them back to the field station’s lab, it was just a matter of keeping them alive until they pupated and then hatched into adults which I could identify.”
Questions 1-5
.................................................................................
The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-I.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-I, in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
1 Criticism against flight height theory of butterfly
2 Explained why Beccaloni carried out research in Ecuador,
3 Different mimicry ring flies at different height
4 The method of catching butterfly by Beccaloni
5 Not all Mimicry patterns are toxic information sent out from insects.
Questions 6-11
................................................................................
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 6-11 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE  if the sataement agrees with the information
FALSE  if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN  if there is no information on this
6 All butterflies’colours of wings reflect the sense of warning to other predators.
7  Insects may imitate butterflies’wing pattern as well.
8 Flying Altitude of butterfly is determined by their food.
9 Beccaloni agreed with flight height hypothesis and decided to reassure its
validity.
10  Jatun Sacha has the richest diversity of breeds in the world.
11 Beccaloni has more detailed records on the location of butterfly collection than
others.
Questions 12-13
.............................................................................
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D
Write your answers in boxes 12-13 on your answer sheet.
12 Which is correct about butterflies flight altitude ?
A  Flight height theory already established
B Butterfly always flies at a certain height
C It is like the airplane’s flying phenomenon
D  Each butterfly has its own favorable height
13 Which is correct about Beccaloni next investigation after flight height?
A  Some certain statistics have already been collected
B Try to find connections between larval height and adult ones
C It’s very difficult to raise butterfly larval
D  Different larval favors different kinds of trees

参考答案:
1. E
2. B
3. G
4. F
5. D
6. FALSE
7. TRUE
8. NOT GIVEN
9. FALSE
10. NOT GIVEN
11. TRUE
12. D
13. B

第二篇:the link between culture and thought
文章主旨:
第一段:人们普遍认为,不同文化的人处理信息的方式一样,只是思考内容不同
第二段:研究者N对此提出了质疑,认为不同文化,即西方人和东方人思考问题的方式也不同。也提到之前就有一个研究提出这一观点,N的研究更有说服力,因为进行了一系列研究
第三段:研究者N和A一起进行了研究,给人们展现了一段海洋中鱼的视频。东方人更关注环境,西方人更关注鱼。第二个视频中海洋环境变化,鱼没有变化,东方人由于关注背景,没能识别是同一条鱼
第四段:研究者N和B进行了一个研究,研究人们对于相反观点的反应。最开始的时候,美国人和韩国人在一个问题上观点一致。当有相反的观点出现,并且相反观点明显正确时,韩国人认同正确观点,而美国人明知观点正确,还是坚持自己原来的看法
第五段:研究者N和C进行了一样研究,研究人们对于正常逻辑的反应。正常的逻辑是动物冬天冬眠,兔子是动物,所以兔子也冬眠。西方人认同这一逻辑,而东方人则会基于自己的经验,认为逻辑错误,兔子不会冬眠
第六段:不同研究者对N结论的看法,有认同有反对
段落信息配对5
14. D a study in which people hold a similar opinion
15. B a study involving the potential effects of rural life on thought (B段提到了之前有一个研究,研究环境对于欧洲农民在逻辑上的思考)
16. C people from different cultures have different views about the same scene (文章中提到关于一个video,东方人关注background,而西方人关注fish)
17. A young people from different cultures think about different things (非洲的少年想的是cows,欧洲的少年想的是cars)
18. D people from different cultures have different reaction to a contradictory view (韩国人接受观点,美国人坚持自己看法)
人名配对4
共3个选项
A. 研究者N和A
B. 研究者N和B
C. 研究者N和C
19. A 实验对象关注点不同
20. B 一些人更加关注观点是否正确
21. C 一些人更加关注正常的逻辑推理
22. A 新的背景出现时,无法识别熟悉的事物(同一条鱼,但是环境变化,无法识别)
填空题4
23 do not influenced by genes (研究者N认为不是因为基因不同导致不同文化的人处理思想的方式不同)
24. include controlled experiments, thus not qualitative(一个研究者认同N的看法,之前他做了一些定性研究,N的实验对他的研究起到补充的作用)
25. match her own experience(另一位研究者认同观点,因为和她的个人经历一致)
26. however, there is clear social explanation(但是她又提出,东方人思路不同有明显的社会因素可以解释)

答案:
14: D
15: B
16: C
17: A
18: D
19: A
20: B
21: C
22: A
23:genes
24:qualitative
25:experience
26:soical

第三篇:the exploration of mars 火星探索
原文:
A
In 1877, Giovanni Schiaparelli, an Ialian astronomer, made drawings and maps of the Martian surface that suggested strange features. The images from telescopes at this time were not as sharp as today’s. Schiaparelli said he could see a network of lines, or canali. In 1894, an American astronomer, Percival Lowell, made a series of observations of Mars from his own observations of Mars from his own observatory at Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. Lowell was convinced a great network of canals had been dug to irrigate crops for the Martian race! He suggested that each canal had fertile vegetation on either side, making them noticeable from Earth. Drawings and globes he made show a network of canals and oases all over the planet.
B   
The idea that there was intelligent life on Mars gained strength in the late 19th century. In 1898, H.G. Wells wrote a science fiction classic, The War ofthe Worlds about an invading force of Martians who try to conquer Earth. They use highly advanced technology (advanced for 1898) to crush human resistance in their path. In 1917, Edgar Rice Burroughs wrote the first in a series of 11 novels about Mars. Strange beings and rampaging Martian monsters gripped the public’s imagination. A radio broadcast by Orson Welles on Halloween night in 1938 of The War of the Worlds caused widespread panic across America. People ran into the streets in their pyjamas-millions believed the dramatic reports of a Martian invasion.
C   
Probes are very important to our understanding of other planets. Much of our recent knowledge comes from these robotic missions into space. The first images sent back from Mars came from Mariner 4 in July 1965. They showed a cratered and barren landscape, more like the surface of our moon than Earth. In 1969, Mariners 6 and 7 were launched and took 200 photographs of Mars’s southern hemisphere and pole on fly-by missions. But these showed little more information. In 1971, Mariner 9’s mission was to orbit the planet every 12 hours. In 1975, The USA sent two Viking probes to the planet, each with a lander and an orbiter. The landers had sampler arms to scoop up Maritian rocks and did experiments to try and find signs of life. Although no life was found, they sent back the first colour pictures of the planet’s surface and atmosphere from pivoting cameras.
D
The ALH84001 meteorite(陨石)was found in December 1984 in Antarctica, by members of the ANSMET project; The sample was ejected from Mars about 17 million years ago and spent 11,000 years in or on the Antarctic ice sheets. Composition analysis by NASA revealed a kind of magnetite that on Earth, isonly found in association with certain microorganisms. Some structures resembling the mineralized casts of terrestrial bacteria and their appendages (fibrils) or by-products (extracellular polymeric substances) occur in the rims of carbonate globules and preterrestrial aqueous alteration regions. The size and shape of the objects is consistent with Earthly fossilized nanobacteria, but the existence of nanobacteria itself is controversial.
E   
In 1965, the Mariner 4 probe discovered that Mars had no global magnetic field that would protect the planet from potentially life-threatening cosmic radiation ( 宇宙 射 线 )and solar radiation; observations made in the late 1990s by the Mars Global Surveyor confirmed this discovery. Scientists speculate that the lack of magnetic shielding helped the solar wind blow
away much of Mars’s atmosphere over the course of several billion years. After mapping cosmic radiation levels at various depths on Mars, researchers have concluded that any life within the first several meters of the planet’s surface would be killed by lethal doses of cosmic radiation. In 2007,it was calculated that DNA and RNA damage by cosmic radiation would limit life
on Mars to depths greater than 7.5 metres below the planet’s surface. Therefore, the best potential locations for discovering life on Mars may be at subsurface environments that have not been studied yet. Disappearance ofthe magnetic field may played an significant role in the process of Martian climate change. According to the valuation of the scientists, the climate of Mars gradually transits from warm and wet to cold and dry after magnetic field vanished.
F
No Mars probe since Viking has tested the Martian regolith (风化层) peci- fically for metabolism (新陈 代 谢)which is the ultimate sign of current life. NASA’s recent missions have focused on another question: whether Mars held lakes or oceans of liquid water on its surface in the ancient past. Scientists have found hematite, a mineral that forms in the presence of water. Thus, the mission of the Mars Exploration Rovers of 2004 was not to look for present or past life, but for evidence of liquid water on the surface of Mars in the planet’s ancient past. Liquid water, necessary for Earth life and for metabolism as generally conducted by species on Earth, cannot exist on the surface of Mars under its present low atmospheric pressure and temperature, except at the lowest shaded elevations for short periods and liquid water does not appear at the surface itself. In March 2004, NASA announced that its rover Opportunity had discovered evidence that Mars was, in the ancient past, a wet planet. This had raised hopes that evidence of past life might be found on the planet today. ESA confirmed that the Mars Express orbiter had directly detected huge reserves of water ice at Mars’south pole in January 2004.
G   
Two metres below the surface of the Atacama Desert there is an ‘oasis’of microorganisms. Researchers from the Center of Astrobiology (Spain) and the Catholic University of the North in Chile have found it in hypersaline substrates thanks to SOLID, a detector for signs of life which could be used inenvironments similar to subsoil on Mars. “We have named it a ‘microbial oasis’because we found microorganisms developing in a habitat that was rich in rock salt and other highly hygroscopic compounds that absorb water”, explained Victor Parro, researcher from the Center of Astrobiology (INTACSIC, Spain) and coordinator of the study. “If there are similar microbes on Mars or remains in similar conditions to the ones we have found in Atacama, we could detect them with instruments like SOLID”Parro highlighted
H
Even more intriguing, however, is the alternative scenario by Spanish scientists: If those samples could be found to have organisms that use DNA, as Earthly life does, as their genetic code. It is extremely unlikely that such a highly specialised, complex molecule like DNA could have evolved separately on the two planets, indicating that there must be a common origin for Martian and Earthly life. Life based on DNA first appeared on Mars and then spread to Earth, where it then evolved into the myriad forms of plants and creatures that exist today. If this was found to be the case, we would have to face the logical conclusion: we are all Martian. If not, we would continue to search the life of signs.

Questions 27-32
The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-H, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
27  Martian evidence on Earth
28  Mars and Earth may share the same life origin
29  certain agricultural construction was depicted specifically
30  the project which aims to identify life under similar condition of Mars
31  Mars had experienced terrifying climate transformation
32  Attempts in scientific investigation to find liquid water
Questions 33-36
Choose the correct letter, A,B,C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.
33 How did Percival Lowell describe Mars in this passage?
A Perfect observation location is in Arizona.
B  Canals of Mars are broader than that of the earth.
C  Dedicated water and agriculture trace is similar to the earth.
D Actively moving Martian lives are found by observation.
34  How did people change their point of view towards Mars from 19th century?
A They experienced Martian attack.
B  They learned knowledge of mars through some literature works
C  They learned new concept by listening famous radio program.
D They attended lectures given by famous writers.
35   In 1960s, which information is correct about Mars by a number of Probes sent to the space?
A It has a landscape full of rock and river
B  It was not as vivid as the earth
C  It contained the same substance as in the moon
D It had different images from the following probes
36   What is the implication of project proceeded by technology called SOLID in Atacama Desert?
A It could be employed to explore organisms under Martian condition.
B  This technology could NOT be used to identify life on similar condition of Mars.
C  Atacama Desert is the only place that has a suitable environment for organisms.
D Life had not yet been found yet in Atacama Desert.
Questions 37-40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE  if the sataement agrees with the information
FALSE  if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN  if there is no information on this
37 Technology of Martian creature was superior than what human had at that time in every field according to The War of the Worlds.
38 Proof sent by Viking probes has not been challenged yet.
39  Analysis on meteorite from Mars found a substance which is connected tosome germs.
40   According to Victor Parro, their project will be deployed on Mars after they identified DNA substance on earth.

答案:
27. D
28. H
29. A
30. G
31. E
32. F
33. C
34. B
35. B
36. A
37. NOT GIVEN
38. FALSE
39. TRUE
40. NOT GIVEN

答案解析:
27. D
【原文参考依据-D 】
The Martian meteorite found in Earth aroused doubts to the above analysis .陨石是来自火星的证据。
28. H
【原文参考依据-H 倒数第5句】must be a common origin for Martian and Earthly life.Life based on DnA first appeared on Mars and then spread to Earth.
29. A
30. G
【原文参考依据-第3句 句末】a detector for signs of life which could be used in environments similar to subsoil on Mars......if there are similar microbes on Mars or remains in similar conditions to the ones we have found in Atacama...
31. E
【原文参考依据-末句】According to the valuation of the scientists,the climate of Mars gradually transits from warm and wet to cold and dryafter magnetic field vanished.
32 F
【原文参考依据-F】第二行...scientists have found hematite,a mineral that forms in the presence of water.thus th mission of ........ancient past.
33C
【原文参考依据-A】第4句话Lowell as convinced a great network of canals had been dug to irrgate crops for the Martian race!He suggested that each canal had fertile vegetation on either side, making them noticeable from Earth.Drawings and globes he made show a network of canals and oases all over the planet.确信火星有一个巨大的水渠网络为火星族群灌溉作物!他提到每个运河两边都有肥沃的植被 ,使它们从地球上观测显得非常明显。他制作的图纸和球星模型显示了火星是个充满水渠网络和绿洲的行星。
34B
【原文参考依据-B】
35B
【原文参考依据-C】第二句话The first images sent back from Mars came from Mariner 4 in July 1965.They showeda cratered and barren landscape,more like the surface of our moon than Earth.
36B【B选项,请将not 去掉】
【原文参考依据-D】 题目问的是:在“Atacama Desert"基于Soild 技术项目给我们什么启示?
选项A:这个技术可以在相同的火星条件用来寻找生物。
选项B:可以用在类似条件的火星上识别生物。
选项C:Atacama Desert 是唯一的一个适合有机体的环境
选项D:未在Atacama Desert 发现生命体
根据Atacama Desert定位到原文段落G段,中间部分和末句”solid ,a detector for signs of life which could be used in environments similar to subsoil on Mars. "If there are similar microbes on Mars or remains in similar conditions to the ones we have found in Atacama,we could detect them with instruments like solid "Parro highlighted.这里讲到 solid 是一种探测生命迹象的仪器,可用于环境类似于火星的土壤。“如果有类似的微生物在火星或在类似的条件下存在,就像我们在acama 阿塔卡沙漠发现的一样,那么就可以用solid仪器检测它们."parro重点说到,结合文章,选项B符合原文,因此正确答案为B第三句话 The sample was ejected from Mars about 17 million years ago and spent 11.000years in or on the Antarctic ice sheets.
37NOT GIVEN文章没有具体提到
38FALSE
【原文参考依据-C】
第8行In 1975,The USA sent two Viking probes to planet,each with a lander and an orbiter.
39. TRUE
【原文参考依据-D】中部第三行开始 meteorite was discovered in december 1984 in Antarctica, by members of the ANSMET project
40. NOT GIVEN 没有提到“will”这么肯定的说法。
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