雅思托福英语全球网

 找回密码
 立即注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

查看: 1630|回复: 0

2020年7月25日托福听说读写真题答案回忆蹲点汇总+解析

[复制链接]

2862

主题

8259

帖子

2万

积分

管理员

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

积分
23467
发表于 2020-7-25 10:38:38 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
2020年7月25日托福听说读写真题答案回忆蹲点汇总+解析请看最下面
欢迎美国、加拿大等北美托福考区和亚太、欧洲、澳洲等其它托福考区的考生在我们微信:504918228, ieltstofel3,ielts2013,或者QQ504918228,QQ26346059上面
                                    
互动咨询微信:504918228 或 ieltstofel3或 ielts2013 或托福公共微信:tofelielts
互动咨询QQ:504918228, 26346059, 450784339


快速提高20到60分:TOEFL CPU托福考试真题题库答案和最新每一场托福考试预测答案范文机经说明http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-231387-1-1.html

托福冲刺快速加分30-80分套餐系列:
TOEFL CPU资料+1对1托福考官专家型辅导请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-87-1-1.html

托福公共微信平台1,2:ieltstofel,tofelielts----最新托福考试题库,最新每一场托福预测及配套完整答案范文机经,快速提高托福20-60分,最新各种不同层次基础托福考试实用成功经验,托福100以上,110以上高分实用复习备考经验,国内外最新每一场托福口语笔试蹲点题目汇总,最新托福听说读写解题方法技巧和考试诀窍,最新托福考试信息资料

超高命中率加拿大、美国等北美托福真题预测机经汇总2020年7月8月9月10月11月12月北美托福听说读写答案范文机经http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-233224-1-1.html

超高命中率大陆考区托福真题预测机经汇总2020年7月8月9月10月11月12月托福听说读写答案范文http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-232706-1-1.html

TOEFL IBT Special Home Edition托福IBT在家考试版真题预测答案范文机经2020年7月8月9月北美、中国大陆、亚太、欧洲考区汇总请进入 http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-249455-1-1.html


2020年7月25日托福听说读写真题答案回忆蹲点汇总+解析
回忆1:
独立写作:

(三选一,话题新):
Which quality do u think is the most important quality for the teachers of high school students(aged 15-18)?
1) the ability to help the students to plan for the future;
2) the ability to find the students in trouble on class and help them to solve it;
3) the ability to learn outside of the classroom

综合写作:

阅读:要不要在grate lakes建wind turbines
观点1:能给本地人提供工作岗位
观点2:grate lakes的水是淡水,对turbine的伤害小
观点3:利用水能可以减少coal和gas的使用

听力:反对
观点1:加大了本地财政的压力
观点2:水容易结冰会crack turbine
观点3:turbine需要使用的润滑油会排放一种物质导致水质下降无法饮用
回忆2:
独立口语:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? To truly know about a county, it is necessary to learn a major language of this country?Use specific reasons and examples to support your position.

To understand acountry, it is necessary to learn amajor language of that country.

综合口语:

TASK 2:
阅读:学校禁止学生把art books带出图书馆。
原因1:书很贵带出去容易损坏。
原因2:可以在书架旁安装桌子。

听力:学生同意。
原因1:图书馆禁止饮食的规定可以保护图书不被破坏。
原因2:书很重,图书馆提供了一个很好的学习地点。

TASK 3:
术语解释:undercover marketing,秘密行销。
例子:宣传camera,通过雇佣许多演员用相机拍照,然后进行宣传,吸引别的人,让他们觉得相机很好。

TASK 4:
引进insects来控制外来植物过程中的两个缺点。
缺点1:引进那个昆虫会对新环境不适应,因此没有作用。
缺点2:这个昆虫也会吃一些人们不想让它吃的植物。
回忆3:
听力部分

Conversation:
1. 导师建议学生做田野调查的笔记放在方法论部分
2. 学生问气象站怎么收集降雨数据
3. 学生提问为什么有一家气象站的降雨数据比别的站多
4. 女生问老师能不能enlarge art collection
5. 一个学艺术的学生怕自己的选题被讨论过了,教授建议他写一个艺术家
6. 学生假期做field trip记了笔记,教授建议他把细节放在methodology里
7. 学考古专业的女学生去找教授,表示考古研究需要挖掘,所以需要投资。
去问教授如何获得资金。教授建议你写完计划,可以给老师和家人读一读,如果大家有不懂的地方,你就要修改一下。

Lecture:
1. 仿生学的3个分支
2. 恐龙化石
3. China decoration在工业革命后的美国流行
4. 讲解一个艺术流派,创始人叫KB,他的画作是五颜六色的各种形状组成的。他的创作灵感来自于当老师的时候,孩子们的画作~
回忆4:
阅读部分

1. 法国工业革命
2. 盲肠的作用
3. 黄蜂和蜜蜂
4. 二次城市化
5. bumble bee和honey bee
6. 阑尾的作用
7. second urbanization二次城市化
8. 在树木间滑翔的动物
9. 极端降雨导致农业减产
10. 恐龙灭绝的原因
11. 因为极端降雨导致农业减产从而导致的一系列问题
12. Mid East agriculture
13. 欧洲污水处理
14. 普遍的理论是生命需要一种compound,这种compound一旦和氧气在一起,就会分解。
回忆5:
写作
Which one is the most important for teacher of high school:
  1 The ability to help students plan for their future;
  2 The ability to find the students who need help most and help them;
  3 Teach students how to learn outside the classroom.

立场:teach students how to learn outside the classroom is the most important thing for high school teachers

理由:
1.   知识:Teach students how to learn outside the classroom,在教授的过程中,学生可以了解到有关如何自主学习的知识,并且可以在课外应用这些知识。因此,通过不断地吸收知识不断地运用所学的知识,学生们在没有老师帮助的情况下也可以自主学习,他们的独立学习的能力也得以提升。
2.   效率:Teach students how to learn outside the classroom,在老师教学生们这种方法之后,在学生以后的课外生活中如遇到问题则不需要花多余的时间去问老师,可以自己通过老师教的方法去解决,这样一来不但能够减少彼此时间的浪费,还能提升学生的效率。
3. 对比段:从知识的角度来说,一个老师有the ability to help students plan for their future或the ability to find the students who need help most and help them都无法帮助学习以他们自己的能力在课外学习到新的知识。从效率的角度来说,如果一个老师有the ability to help students plan for their future或the ability to find the students who need help most and help them,虽然学生的时间会节省,但老师需要花费的时间变多了因为要费时费力帮助他们形成一个很好的未来规划以及花时间去寻找需要帮助的人并且不断地投入帮助。
(最后一个主体段可省略举例子)
回忆6:
口语
T1
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
To truly know about a county, it is necessary to learn a major language of this country?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your position.
选择同意。因为只有学习了语言,才能和民众进行交流,了解最真实的国家情况。举例就是之前看美国电影,觉得美国真是人间仙境。但是后来学了英语,和美国各个阶层的人进行沟通,其实他们虽然也有值得骄傲的地方,但是也同样有苦恼。对美国的了解更加立体全面了。

T2
阅读:图书馆新出政策,不允许艺术类书记带出馆。因为还回来的书都是poor condition.现在的方案是在艺术类书籍边上放桌子供学生阅读。
听力:同意。首先确实大家平时会把吃喝的东西弄脏书,图书馆里面不能吃喝,所以可以保护书籍。二来艺术类书籍旁边有桌子,可以免去拿着很重的书回家。
注意这道题目的结构不是1+2,而是1+1+1哦。

T3
阅读:undercover marketing在消费者没有留意的情况下,就发生了消费
听力:公司推出了一个新相机,公司可能会雇佣50个“演员”,去旅游景点找路人帮忙拍照,然后同时闲聊说自己很喜欢这个相机。最后发现果然促进了销量

T4
主题是用昆虫治理入侵植物的弊端
一个物种到了新的栖息地,然后可能泛滥,这时候可能需要再引入它的天地去控制它。但是这个方法不一定管用。
理由1:被引入的捕食者可能由于“水土不服”而死去
理由2:被引入的捕食者可能同时会捕食其他珍贵的当地物种
回忆7:
听力
Conversation
C1:教授建议学生做field trip田野调查,并且把笔记放在论文中方法论部分
C2:学生问教授气象站怎么收集降雨数据
C3:学生问老师能不能enlarge art collection
C4:学生怕自己的选题被讨论过了,教授建议他写一个艺术家

Lecture
1. 仿生学的3个分支
2. 判断恐龙化石
3. China decoration在工业革命后的美国流行
回忆8:
阅读:

树上的动物(疑似The GeographicalDistribution of Gliding Animals 2015年5月24日考题)

法国工业革命

农业起源(农业的发展是人类史上的一大进步。农业出现之前的时代称为PaleolithicAge, 出现之后的时代称为Neolithic Age, 人们从以收集和打猎为生转变为开始驯化作物和野生动物。探讨农业产生的原因:在农业出现之前,人们一般是定期迁徙,当气候变化导致原来的地方食物不丰富以后就迁徙到另外食物丰富的地方生活。其中一个原因是可能当食物丰富的时候,再加上可能死亡率较低导致人口增长较多,当气候变暖食物不多的时候人们积存了一部分食物可以维持一段时间,同时人们懒得迁徙,就种植作物和畜养动物来扩大食物供给来源。同时,此前人们已经有一些农业技巧,食物的缺少促进了这些技巧的更加频繁和广泛的使用。农业的产生不是一个sudden event, 而是一个gradual 的过程,在这段时间内,农业和hunting & gathering 同时存在,目前现在有些地方仍然处在hunting& gathering 的阶段。)

蜜蜂:讨论了如何照顾幼蜂和应对重新建巢的困难。推荐阅读TPO32-3Distributions of Tropical Bee Colonies。

盲肠(文章难度较大,长段落)
回忆9:
阅读
01.法国工业革命
02.Appendix
阑尾的作用
03.Honeybees vs Bumblebees
蜜蜂和大黄蜂
2018.01.17,2017.08.26,27.,2016.01.23
Bumblebee与honeybee的对比,Bumblebee不将花丛的准确位置告知同伴的原因:一是Honeybee生长在热带,Bumblebee生长在季节分明的地区,在这种条件下花束的生长容易分散;二是Bumblebee的交流需要花费的成本较高,所以造成传递的信息准确性不高。

接下来讲到Bumblebee如何区分rewarding和unrewarding的花束,主要通过之前蜜蜂所留下的痕迹,除此之外还有气味(scent),flower size和形状的对称性(symmetry)。

04.Urban Development in the United States in the Nineteenth Century
十九世纪美国城市发展
2019.11.17,2019.05.11,2019.03.31,2014.11.23,2014.04.27,2017.05.06
P1-没有规划:美国19世纪的城市发展整体缺乏规划,只是在局部小区域内为了吸引富人购买,开发商做了精心的布局。但是这种布局不同于我们今天所说的出于对城市空间排列和服务组织考量而进行的规划。

P2-起作用的其他因素:其他因素有经济、交通技术、人口学、以及美国人对独门独户生活和乡村生活的喜好。具体说,经济因素使得城市中的工商业发展优先选择最佳地段,并且经济带来的人们收入提高使得能够购买更大的房子和支付远距离交通;交通变革延伸了人们换乘的距离,并且降低了交通成本。

P3-起作用的其他因素:人口也影响着城市发展,一方面大量农村和外国移民移入城市,使得城市越来越大;另一方面城市中原有人口主要是中产阶级开始逃离城市搬到乡村,因为他们发现城市中的问题越来越严重,更喜好乡村生活。

P4-存在的问题:城市中的问题分成两类,一类是一直到今天都难以解决的问题如犯罪、噪音等,另一类是因为缺乏城市规划而产生的,如易发火灾和卫生条件恶劣诱发传染病。

P5-存在的问题:火灾和卫生这两个问题都和另一方面城市特点有关,那就是城市建设缺乏协同合作,最明显的例子就是道路的扭曲,使其更靠近某住户的房子,这完全是出于个人的考虑而没有整体协作。

Vocabulary Card

steadily = continually 稳定持续地
plague = cause trouble for 招致问题
abrupt = sudden 突然的

真题原文:
Urban Development in the United States
in the Nineteenth Century

In discussing the growth of cities in the United States in the nineteenth century, one cannot really use the term “urban planning,” as it suggests modern concerns for spatial and service organization which, in most instances, did not exist before the planning revolution called the City Beautiful Movement that began in the 1890s. While there certainly were urban areas that were “planned” in the comprehensive contemporary sense of the word before that date, most notably Washington, D.C., these were the exception. Most “planned” in the nineteenth century was limited to areas much smaller than a city and was closely associated with developers trying to make a profit from a piece of land. Even when these small-scale plans were well designed, the developers made only those improvements that were absolutely necessary to attract the wealthy segment of the market. Indeed, it was the absence of true urban planning that allowed other factors to play such an important role in shaping the nineteenth-century American city.

Three forces particularly affected the configuration of urban and suburban areas in the nineteenth century: economics, transportation technology, and demographics. Added to these was the characteristic American preference both for independent living, usually associated with having an individual, free-standing home for one’s family, and for rural living. Economics affected urbanization in two ways. First, economic considerations influenced location decisions for business and industry, which often preempted choice sites. Second, industrial growth generated higher incomes for large segments of the population, which in turn provided more money for larger homes and commuter transportation. Related to economics (since costs to individuals always played a role) were improvements in transportation, from the first horse-drawn buses of the 1820s to electrified street railways at the end of the century. Each transport innovation extended the distance that a person could reasonably travel as a commuter or shopper, while constant system improvements and increased ridership lessened costs.

Demographic patterns also affected urbanization in two ways: first, urban populations grew steadily throughout the century due to immigration from rural areas, principally by those seeking factory work, and emigration from abroad. Therefore cities expanded as new housing had to be provided. Secondly, at the same time that new residents were surging into cities, many urbanites, particularly those of the middle classes, began to leave. While a preference for rural living explained part of this exodus, it was also due to the perception that various urban problems were becoming worse.

Many nineteenth-century urban problems were those that continue to plague cities today—crime, pollution, noise—but others were the direct result of lack of planning and regulation, such as threat of fire, poor sanitation, and shoddy building construction. Fire was a significant problem in urban areas of North America from the time of the first European settlement. Construction with combustible materials coupled with close placement of buildings and the use of open flames in heating, cooking, and lighting meant that the potential for raging fires was ever present. Lack of sanitation, and the ensuring public health problems it created, was a more constant, if less dramatic, urban issue. It was not until the 1860s that any serious, concerted effort was made to develop proper systems for water delivery and sewage removal. In spite of remarkable strides made in the 1870s and 1880s by the newly established profession of sanitary engineering, the common nineteenth-century pattern of individual unprofessionally planned and installed cesspools (underground tanks for holding household sewage) continued. This led to water contamination and the spread of disease by rodents and insects.

Problems of fire and poor sanitation were inextricably linked with the last major urban problem of the nineteenth century—lack of coordination in the physical expansion of cities and their infrastructure systems (systems for providing services such as water, gas, electricity, and sewage). Typically, development was both unplanned and unrestricted, with landowners making all choices of lot size, services, and street arrangement based only on their individual needs in the marketplace. Distortions of streets and abrupt changes in the distance of houses from the street in urban areas, which so clearly delineate where one development ended and another began, were just the most obvious problems that this lack of coordination created.

05.The Geographical Distribution of Gliding Animals
滑翔动物的地理分布
2020.01.12,2018.10.13,2015.05.24,2014.03.15
第一段:讲到东南亚很大量可以glide的动物,glide—是逃生,二是save energy,但是只有这里有大量能glide的动物,就很奇怪(文章要讨论的问题)。

第二段:第一个理论说是因为这里的树木很高,有利于gliding animal起飞,有缓冲,且风速小(细节题,问哪个不是优点),但是这种理论的flaw在于,其他树木较低的地方也有gliding animal,且很多gliding animal起跳是在trunk中部,都没有到顶端。

第三段:第二种理论说一方面,这里的forest top没有vine,换言之动物去ground的话很危险,且树木高低错落,适合glide,但是科学家说这里也有canopy之间有大量的vine,在世界的其他tropical forest中,也有不少的forest top是没有vine的。

第四段:最后一个理论,是食物的匮乏,对于吃树叶的动物来说,因为这些tropical forest大部分是由一种树叶有毒的树组成(有题,问leaf-eating animal为什么要travel),所以animal需要travel来获取食物,而glide比较省力。

第五段:对于肉食动物来说,也需要travel来获取食物资源,因为这种植物的flower和fruit的周期很长,所以insect少。

Vocabulary Card
scattered=wildly separated 分散的
speculates=puts forward as a possibility 假设
tremendous=enormous 大量的
//【滑翔】话题重复
Gliding and Soaring 滑翔与高飞
真题原文详情点击-->20190223

真题原文
Gliding is gravity-powered flight where the movement of the glider has a downward tilt. But many birds are capable of ascending without flapping their wings, and this is called soaring.Birds usually soar by finding air that is rising as fast as or faster than the gliding bird's sinking speed. For example, a turkey vulture might glide with a sinking speed of about 0.8 meters per second. If the vulture can find a place where the air is rising at 0.8 meters per second, it will be able to maintain a constant altitude. If it finds air rising faster than that, it will be able to climb.

Two common processes produce updrafts, or rising air. When heated air rises, it is called a thermal, and when wind blows up a hill or over a large obstacle, it is called ridge lift or slope lift. Thermals occur when the Sun heats some parts of the ground more than others. For example, a freshly plowed field may heat up faster than an adjacent meadow. The warm ground heats the air above it, and the air starts to rise. As the warm air rises, it is replaced by cool air from the surrounding terrain, and this new air is heated until it rises. Thermals may be continuous chimneys of rising air, or a series of discrete, doughnut-shaped bubbles (ring thermals) formed at intervals by the warmed ground.

If they could be made visible, ring thermals would look like giant, rising smoke rings. Some airplane pilots and biologists disagree about the exact form of continuous thermal chimneys. Pilots have traditionally interpreted thermals as large, tall columns of rising air, usually with a cumulus (white, fluffy) cloud marking the top of the column. In contrast, observers of animal flight find only small, localized thermal chimneys, which usually take the form of dust devils, which are small columnar thermals with intense rotation. Colin Pennycuick, a prolific researcher on bird flight, discounts thermal chimneys and recognizes only ring thermals as sources of large-scale, long-lasting updrafts. In any case, thermals can rise 2 or 3 kilometers above the ground. Also, they tend to increase in size and intensity as they rise, sometimes reaching over 1,000 meters in diameter. Thermals are usually capped by a cloud, because the upper limit of a thermal is set by the altitude where the temperature is low enough to condense water vapor in the thermal, which cools the air and forms a cloud.

As long as the upward speed of the thermal is greater than the sinking speed of a glider, the glider will ascend in the thermal. Of course, the glider will quickly fly out of the thermal if it flies in a straight line, so it must circle to stay in the rising air. (A glider should stay on the inside of the ring, because the air on the outer edge of the ring is actually rolling downward.) Imagine a vulture ascending to 1,500 meters above the ground by circling in a ring thermal. From this height, it will be able to fly out of the thermal and glide for about 30 minutes (traveling over 23 kilometers) before it runs out of altitude and needs to either start flapping, find another thermal, or land. Many soaring birds use just this pattern: climbing up in a thermal, gliding a long distance, then finding another thermal in which to soar. This type of flight is an efficient way to cover long distances at a low energy cost, making it a handy way to migrate or search for food.

Slope soaring is useful when wind blows upward along a slope. The speed of the wind's upward motion can be calculated in the same manner that the sinking speed of a glider is calculated. If the upward speed of this wind is greater than or equal to the sinking speed of a glider, the glider will be able to maintain altitude. Such ridge lift has a characteristic that is both an advantage and a disadvantage: ridge lift is usually predictably tied to a particular slope, so it is easy to find. But it is usable only in that fixed, local area.
at intervals = periodically时不时地
discrete = separate不连续的
prolific = highly productive多产的
adjacent = nearby邻近的

英联全球雅思托福英语Q1  11:34:17
06.极端降雨导致农业减产
07.中东农业发展
文章谈到了中东发展农业的原因:气候变化、环境问题等等,以及其农业分为动物农业和植物农业。
//话题解析详见——civilizatio

英联全球雅思托福英语Q1  11:34:58
08.铁轨合并
09.Europe Sewage Crisis
欧洲污水危机
对于欧洲的污水问题,有人认为污水里有两种作物必须元素,所以可以引到农村去灌溉农田。但是,有位工程师反对,理由是:成本太高且城市发展重心是工业而非农业。后来举了巴黎处理污水的例子,不仅十分尊重民意,而且修护了河流,并把污水引入农村灌溉。

补充阅读

Europe’s Sewage Crisis

As Western civilization made the transition from medieval to the modern era, the systems that had been developed to provide water and remove wastes struggled to keep up with increasing population densities. A new approach was needed if cities were going to continue their rapid growth. In response to the problems caused by inadequate and polluted water supplies, each city relied on its own ideas about public health, aesthetics, and the role ofthe state in civil affairs in order to develop urban water systems that were best suited for their particular climates and geographic features. The differences in the water infrastructures developed in carious European cities have diminished over time, but they can still be seen in the practices andattitudes of modern Europeans.
当西方文明逐渐从中世纪向现代过渡时,已有的供水和排污系统只能勉为其难地跟随着日益增长的人口密度。如果这些城市要维持其快速发展,必须有一套新的供水系统。为应对供水不足及水体污染所引起的诸多问题,每座城市会依据其在公共卫生、审美,以及市政府在民政事务中所起作用的理念,发展一套适合各自特殊气候和地理特征的城市水系统。随着时间的推移,不同的欧洲城市开发的水利基础设施,其差异逐渐缩小。但从现代欧洲人的具体实践和认知观念仍能看出这种城市间的差异。

These differences are best understood by exploring the development of urban water infrastructure in the two largest cities of the period—London andParis. Both cities are located on the banks of major rivers (the Thames and the Seine, respectively), and both experienced rapid population growth starting inthe sixteenth century, with populations crossing the one million mark near the beginning of the nineteenth century. When demand for water exceeded its supplyand wastes from the densely populated cities started to foul the streets and polluted the water supply, London and Paris both started building up their water infrastructures.
厘清这种城市间差异的最好方式是探索当时世界上最大的两座城市———伦敦和巴黎———的水利基础设施发展状况。这两座城市分别位于泰晤士河和塞纳河河畔。从16世纪开始,这两座城市都经历了高速的人口增长,19世纪初的人口规模已超100万。当城市的用水供不应求、人口密集城市的粪便开始污染街道和供水的时候,伦敦和巴黎都开始建造自己的水利基础设施。

Although the attempt by Paris’s leaders to reuse its citizens’ wastesfor agriculture was laudable, it was ultimately impractical, because continued growth meant that there was not enough land to spread all of the waste close tothe city. Attempts to apply more sewage than the crops could handle would inevitably lead to decreased crop yields and foul odors emanating from the “sewage sick” farms. If sewage farms were to succeed, more land would beneeded.37
尽管巴黎的官员尝试把粪便用于农业生产的做法值得称赞,但这种做法最终是不切实际的。因为城市规模的持续增长,意味着城市周围没有足够的土地来利用所有的粪便。试图把过多的污水用于污水农场,可能会超过农作物的承受度。这么做,将不可避免地导致作物产量下降,以及来自“污水过饱和”农场散发出的恶臭。若要污水农田获得成功,唯一的办法是要有更多的土地[37]。

In the 1920s, civic leaders proposed an ambitious plan to build apipeline to take the wastes of Paris to sites in the Champagne region 140 km (87 miles) west of the city.38 The project would permanently solve the city’ssewage problem by increasing the acreage of sewage farms tenfold. Ultimately, theproject was never built, because the price of fertilizer had dropped too muchto make the recycling of nutrients attractive.39 In addition, by this time agronomistshad realized that the mixture of nutrients in human waste contained lessphosphorus than plants needed. When the lower cost of imported fertilizer andthe need to supplement sewage with phosphorus were both factored into theanalysis, sewage farms became less attractive.
20世纪20年代,市政府官员提出了一个庞大的计划,即修建一条管道线,将巴黎的粪便输送到市区以西140公里的香槟区[38]。这个项目拟通过增加10倍污水农田的面积,来一劳永逸地解决巴黎的污水处理问题。但这个项目最终并未实施,因为化肥的价格下降得太多,以至于利用粪便中营养成分的做法不再具有吸引力[39]。此外,这时农学家们已经意识到人类粪便中混合营养物质的含磷量低于植物生长所需的磷的用量。综合考虑廉价的进口肥料和需要向污水中补充磷元素两方面因素,污水农田就不再具有吸引力。

By the end of the nineteenth century, Paris and London had both givenup on the prospect of reusing human waste because other sources of fertilizerwere readily available. To protect public health, sewage was being dischargeddirectly into the Seine and Thames. The water intakes had either been moved upstream or water was being imported from less contaminated sources outside ofthe cities. The water supply was safe and secure. Problem solved—unless, ofcourse, you lived downstream.
到19世纪末,巴黎和伦敦都放弃了继续利用人类粪便,因为其他来源的肥料已经很容易获得。为保护当地居民的健康,污水直接被排入塞纳河和泰晤士河。取水口移到河流的上游,或者从城外污染较轻的地方取水。这样的供水既安全,也有保障。城市污水问题解决了———除非你是生活在下游地区。

10.生命的起源
普遍的理论是生命需要一种化合物,这种化合物一旦和氧气在一起,就会分解。所以产生生命的时候,不能有太多氧气。例如海底就是较好的环境去产生生命,温度较高的时候,会产生一种化学物质。单细胞的生物就受益于这个过程,可以通过自身的新陈代谢,来产生所需的能量。
//【生命起源】相似话题参考
2019.09.07下午场,2019.08.24,2018.04.15
Where Life Arouse
生命的起源
地球上的生物可能是火星金星上通过陨石带来的早期生物。从关于火星的一个现象引出关于microbes是否会从一个星球travel到另一个星球以及在此过程中是否能够存活的研究,有一个证据是关于salt crystal之类的一个微生物,有少量可以存活来支持这个假说,但是有个缺陷是被发现存活的这个微生物十分年轻;有人认为尽管这些微生物在宇宙中的生存环境比较恶劣(射线、真空加寒冷),但是这些微生物可以进入某些休眠状态并且附在某些太空碎片里面进行漂流(drifting),因此当某块陨石坠到地球上,很可能这个里面就有这种来自其他星球的微生物。
preponderance = majority 多数
isolated = separated 隔离的
harness = utilize 利用
vicinity = neighborhood 临近,周边地

2020.01.11,2019.10.12,2019.04.13,2018.09.16
The Dawn of Life
生命的起源
第一段:生命的起源一直都是科学家们探索的要点。目前最早的有生命痕迹的证据在southwestern Greenland澳大利亚的岩石上被发现。这个岩石距今有3.5billion年。(句子插入题说里面发现了fossilized bats)。但是更早的在荷兰发现的岩石里面的痕迹可能是生命痕迹,也可能不是生命痕迹。荷兰的岩石是4billion years之前,但是澳大利亚的岩石中是已经完全进化好的生命痕迹,所以可以推定生命起源于3.5——4billion年前。

第二段:关于生命起源有很多理论:达尔文的观点是:生命起源于a "warm little pond, with all sorts of chemical reactions." 另一些科学家的观点是:生命起源于海洋里;还有的认为生命起源于靠近海底火山的hot vents里面;另一些人认为生命可能来自于外太空,比如火星。

第三段:生命来自外太空的想法有一些可行性。一些微生物可能埋在太空中的行星中,通过行星撞击和陨石的方式来到地球上。因为埋在行星深处,所以他们可以避免外太空的伤害。然后可以得以保存最后到达地球上。最可能的一个假说是生命来自火星。

第四段:为什么是火星呢?因为火星比地球小,而且大概比地球形成的时间要早。火星刚形成的时候温度比现在高,地表大气比现在要更thicker, 而且火星上有少量的水。在最初形成的时候,火星和地球上都经历了很多行星撞击,而且很多时候有些行星撞击到地球上后的喷溅物可能又回到火星上。两个星球接受到的撞击物大概是类似的。但是地球上的水比较多,撞击到海洋里会形成很大的热量,海水温度会过高杀死一些微生物。但是火星上水比较少,就避免了这种问题。所以最初的生命可能在火星上形成然后通过行星撞击的方式来到地球。

第五段:但是这些都是假说,现在也没有发现证据表明这些理论。但是火星上因为撞击比较多,现在表层都是撞击的痕迹。所以如果有生命,可能在packed surface下面的深处。
upheaval = disorder 剧变,动荡
subtly = slightly 轻微地
contemplated = thought 计划,深思
vicinity = surrounding 临近

2020.01.12,2019.10.12下午场,2018.11.10,2015.12.02
Three Theories about Origin of Life
生命起源的理论
首先讲了J和O提出的假说。他们认为,假如早期空气里的氧气含量要小于氢气含量,那么就会有大量的甲醛和氰化氢存在,那么生命应该是在海洋中出现的。然后提到第二种可能性,由于存在一种行星际尘埃粒子(interplanetary dust particles),所以也认为,有可能生命本身来自外太空。最后提到生命可能产生于海底热泉(hydrothermal vents),因为那里有很丰富的矿物质,但也指出过高的温度不太适合产生生命。

11.恐龙灭绝的原因

本场词汇题
vigorous = strong 强健的
ceaseless = incessant 不停的
excessive = extreme 过度的,极其的
postulate = propose 假设
explicit = obvious 明确的
dense = thick 稠密的
scattered = widely separated 分散的
speculate = put forward as a possibility 猜测
tremendous = enormous 巨大的


回忆10:


2020年7月18日托福IBT考试总体反馈-重磅来袭!2020年7月18日托福命中多篇阅读真题原题(绝大部分都是阅读旧题原题),命中口语、听力各四到五部分,命中独立和综合大作文真题原题(都是旧题),总体稍难,CPU资料阅读、写作、听力、口语等全面大中,全面开花!7月18日的托福考试,依然是几套试卷组合,这种模式会一直持续下去。今年托福考试几大特点:(1)听力、口语、写作、阅读老题重复量巨大。(3)在大部分考试中,写作听力一直是四项难度最大,并且对话难度超过讲座)(4)阅读、独立和综合写作重复老题,是我们TOEFL CPU资料里面的。7月18日托福考试大部分题目都在我们CPU资料原题命中!祝贺CPU会员将出现不少100-110分以上托福天才!本次考试听力阅读里大多是老题,仍然大量重复2014-2019年的老题,尤其是我们CPU托福资料的真题。今天口语和写作也是老题居多。ETS今年虽然在考试形式上变化很多,但其实使用的新题非常少,大都是在重复2014-2019年大陆考过的新题。这一方面说明,ETS出题成本太高(80万美金一套),所以出题量小。另一方面说明,托福考试的整体趋势还是稳定的。形式上的变化(多套试卷,阅读加试,听力非经典加试),并不能改变这个考试的内在。今天听力,口语,阅读和写作都重复老题。总体反馈请复制链接进入
特别提醒:托福考试几十多年来,有非常严格的规律性和出题思路。全世界有6到10个托福大考区,而只有一个美国托福考试中心几个人在出题,每个考区每个月要出2-4份考卷,一个月出12-24份考卷,考官如何保证达到难度一样呢,如何保证新题难度、准确度和评价机制公平呢,所以只能是几十年来托福真题题库旧题目的有效组合,新题不能超出10%。事实上每份托福真题卷子都是80%-90%以上旧题原题真题。近年来,阅读几套卷里大多是老题,ETS今年虽然在考试形式上变化很多,但其实使用的新题非常少,大都是在重复2014-2019年大陆考过的老题。这一方面说明,ETS出题成本太高(80万美金一套),所以出新题量小。另一方面说明,托福考试的整体趋势还是稳定的。形式上的变化(多套试卷,阅读加试,听力非经典加试),并不能改变这个考试的内在。除了阅读之外,听力,口语和写作都大部分是重复老题。多年托福考官和专家Edward老师非常熟悉托福出题规律和听说读写题库出题组合卷子的秘诀, CPU资料因此而诞生,可以快速帮助考生提高20-60分!具体请阅读

回复

使用道具 举报

hello
微信公众号:ieltstofel

QQ|Archiver|手机版|小黑屋|雅思托福英语全球网 ( 闽ICP备14014910号

GMT+8, 2020-8-4 22:32 , Processed in 0.123139 second(s), 29 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表

在线客服1:
点击这里给我发消息

在线客服2:
点击这里给我发消息

在线客服3:
点击这里给我发消息

服务时间:
9:00-23:00