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2019年12月1日托福听说读写真题答案回忆蹲点汇总+解析

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发表于 2019-12-3 14:30:45 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
2019年12月1日托福听说读写真题答案回忆蹲点汇总+解析请看最下面
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2019年12月1日托福听说读写真题答案回忆蹲点汇总+解析
回忆1:
阅读
上午场
01
中日水墨画的异同
2019.03.16,2018.10.14,2017.11.25
本文介绍了水墨画,在中国宋代和日本都有,共同点是画的东西很多。中国主要画山水(landscape),写意,画中的人物像蚂蚁一样小。不同点是举了一个日本大师的例子,说他的绘画都是想象的(imaginary),未体现出层次感。而中国的画层次分明。第二点是中国强调用大自然的和谐(harmony)来体现社会的和谐,倾向环境固定(fixed)的特点。而日本倾向画不同季节不同天气同一景色的样子。

【中国&日本】话题重复
2019.11.17,2019.07.07,2019.03.03,2016.02.28
China’s Twelfth-Century Intellectual Influence on Japan
中国十二世纪对日本的智力影响
第一段:两国的贸易,日本的一些东西
第二段:中国宋朝继续对日本会产生影响,贸易会继续
第三段:主要是日本的集中学院
第四段:书,印刷术对宋朝的影响。传到日本对日本的影响,在日本的地位,促进学术发展。
keen = intense 强烈的
evolved = developed 进化,发展
xonstrained to = forced to 受约束,被迫
motivated = encouraged 激发,鼓励(最大干扰项made it possible for)
【真题还原】
第5题:Paragraph 2 suggests that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about interaction between Japan and China during the Sung dynasty?

对应考句:No doubt most of the developments of the Sung in art, religion, and philosophy would in time have been transmitted to Japan. But the fortuitous combination of desire on the part of the Sung to increase its foreign trade with Japan and the vigorous initiative taken in maritime activity by the Taira clan greatly speeded the process of transmission.

解析:长难句的单句理解+句间关系的合成

正确答案:The transmission of China’s intellectual influence was inevitable, but a combination of factors caused this influence to progress more quickly than it might have otherwise developed.

2019.01.13,2018.07.14,2015.04.12
Architectural Change in Eighth-Century Japan
日本建筑设计和结构在6-8世纪的变化
日本建筑在8世纪发生很大变化,从传统日式变为中国大陆风格。对此有几个原因解释,其中日本政治生活的变化导致原有建筑老套过时,被中国大陆模式建筑所取代(引出话题+总括全文)。后文主要可分为两部分,先分析先前传统日式建筑风格及其形成原因,再叙述变化的出现及解决办法。日本部落从不断迁徙到定居到最后城市化的过程,以及中国建筑对于日本建筑的影响。

日本的统治者不仅和家族有联系,而且和配偶也有关系。以前的建筑容易腐蚀,因为政治需要和以前建筑材料的问题,如日本统治者较为频繁的更换住所,有用的材料继续使用,剩下的就焚烧了。

日本的建筑费时费力,很难把手头的人力物力集中起来,但是由于集权扩大,并且欣赏其他国家,如中国的建筑,需要建造居住时间较久的建筑。最后,建筑师慢慢妥协,风格既包容旧的风格,也有像颐和园(summer palace)一样的建筑出现。
in essence = basically 本质上
feasible = practical 可行的
scale = size 规模、大小
advocated = promoted 提倡、鼓励
fostered= encouraged 促进、鼓励

Architectural Change in Eighth-Century Japan
Japanese construction techniques and architectural styles changed in theeighth century C.E. from more traditional Japanese models to importedcontinental (especially Chinese) models. Several factors contributed to this, in particular with respect to the creation of two new capital cities. In essence, changes then occurring in Japanese political life were rendering past arrangements for the rulers’ headquarters obsolete, and continental models offered an alternative.

To elaborate, before the eighth century, the elite marriage practice, which was an important instrument of political alliance making, had encouraged rulers to maintain multiple palaces: that of their own family and those of their spouses, who commonly remained at or near their native family headquarters, at least for some years after marriage. These arrangements had the effect of encouraging frequent changes in royal residence as children matured and marriage alliances changed. The customs of multiple palaces and a moveable court were feasible as long as a ruling group was modest in size and its architectural practices relatively simple.

Moreover, because buildings using the traditional construction of thatched roofs and wooden poles placed directly in the ground rotted away in two decades or so, periodic replacement of palaces, shrines, warehouses, gate towers, and fortress walls was essential. The custom of residential mobility was thus not especially wasteful of labor and material resources: when the time came, one simply erected a new building at a new site—reusing valuable timbers as appropriate—and burned the rest. The practical necessity of replacement was given religious sanction because the regular replacement of buildings was regarded as necessary to provide spiritual cleansing of the site.

As rulers of the sixth and seventh centuries expanded their realm, however, they acquired more and more underlings, administrative paraphernalia, weaponry, and tribute goods, and they needed more and more buildings to house them. As the scale of government grew, moreover, it became more important to have these people and resources close at hand where they could be more easily controlled and utilized. Under these circumstances, frequent moves by the court or replacement of buildings became more costly, even prohibitive.

A solution to the problem was advocated by experts from the continent. This was the use of continental principles of urban design and techniques of construction. These produced geometrically laid out capital cities whose major gates and buildings employed stone foundations, mortise-and-tenon framing (a technique for attaching timbers), and tile roofs that largely eliminated the problem of rot and the consequent need for replacement.

One the other hand, to construct cities and buildings of that sort required so much labor and material that their use effectively precluded periodic replacement or the transfer of a royal headquarters from site to site. Nevertheless, the notion of grand buildings and capital cities became immensely attractive to Japanese rulers during the seventh and eighth centuries. Continental regimes, the glorious new Chinese dynasties most notably, had them: they constituted an expression of political triumph, a legitimizing symbol of the first order. Moreover, the architecture was an integral part of Buddhism, and acceptance of this religion in Japan at this time fostered adoption of its building style.

These several conflicting factors—the need to modify palace and capital arrangements but the difficulty of doing so, the wish to enjoy grandeur but the reluctance to settle for a single, immobile court—all became evident by the mid-seventh century. Change did come, but slowly, and in the end a compromise system was devised. Traditional shrines of Shinto, the native religion of Japan, and many residential buildings continued to be built in the rottable, replaceable style that accommodated religious concerns and taboos, while city gates, major government buildings, and Buddhist temples were built in the continental fashion that met the need for permanence and grandeur. Moreover, the wish of rulers to maintain multiple palaces fit with the custom of certain continental regimes that maintained summer palaces or other regional capitals where rulers could periodically reside on a temporary basis.

Paragraph1
Japanese construction techniques and architectural styles changed in the eighth century C.E. from more traditional Japanese models to imported continental (especially Chinese) models. Several factors contributed to this, in particular with respect to the creation of two new capital cities. In essence, changes then occurring in Japanese political life were rendering past arrangements for the rulers’ headquarters obsolete, and continental models offered an alternative.
1.    The phrase “In essence” in the passage is closet in meaning to
¡ Actually
¡ Basically
¡ However
¡ Moreover

Paragraph2
To elaborate, before the eighth century, the elite marriage practice, which was an important instrument of political alliance making, had encouraged rulers to maintain multiple palaces: that of their own family and those of their spouses, who commonly remained at or near their native family headquarters, at least for some years after marriage. These arrangements had the effect of encouraging frequent changes in royal residence as children matured and marriage alliances changed. The customs of multiple palaces and a moveable court were feasibleas long as a ruling group was modest in size and its architectural practices relatively simple.

2. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
¡ The elaborate marriage customs of the elite encouraged spouses to remain at their family palace for several years after marriage.
¡ Rulers maintained multiple palaces for themselves and their spouses’ families.
¡ Before the eighth century, it was common for the elite to form political alliances with their spouses’ families at the native family headquarters for some years after marriage.
¡ Before the eighth century, the practice of forming alliances through marriage encouraged rulers to maintain palaces at their spouses’ family homes as well as at their own.

3.     The word “feasible” in the passage is closet in meaning to
¡ practical
¡ customary
¡ acceptable
¡ supported

Paragraph 3
Moreover, because buildings using the traditional construction of thatched roofs and wooden poles placed directly in the ground rotted away in two decades or so, periodic replacement of palaces, shrines, warehouses, gate towers, and fortress walls was essential. The custom of residential mobility was thus not especially wasteful of labor and material resources: when the time came, one simply erected a new building at a new site—reusing valuable timbers as appropriate—and burned the rest. The practical necessity of replacement was given religious sanction because the regular replacement of buildings was regarded as necessary to provide spiritual cleansing of the site.

4. In paragraph 3, why does the author discuss the natural decay of the wooden structures built in eighth-century Japan?
¡ To argue that the necessityof replacing buildings every two decades applied to all eighth-century structures, not just residences.
¡ To argue that the custom of residential mobility was not unreasonable given the building practices of the eighth century
¡ To explain why the elite of the eighth century had to moveperiodically to new residences
¡ To explain why in the sixth and seventh centuries Japanese architectural practice changed to the construction of more permanent structures

5.     According to paragraph 3, each of the following was true of thepractice of periodic replacement of buildings EXCEPT:
¡ It was followed for a wide variety of structures.
¡ It involved the reuse of building materials that were still good.
¡ Ordinary Japanese considered it as waste of time and energy.
¡ Over the years it became a religious ritual.

Paragraph 4
As rulers of the sixth and seventh centuries expanded their realm, however, they acquired more and more underlings, administrative paraphernalia, weaponry, and tribute goods, and they needed more and more buildings to house them. As the scale of government grew, moreover, it became more important to have these people and resources close at hand where they could be more easily controlled and utilized. Under these circumstances, frequent moves by the court or replacement of buildings became more costly, even prohibitive.

6.     The word “scale” in the passage is closet in meaning to
¡ importance
¡ duties
¡ needs
¡ size

7. According to paragraph 4, what problem did traditional architectural practices create for rulers of the sixth and seventh centuries?
¡ It was difficult to bring the necessary people and construction materials together to replace buildings periodically.
¡ It was very expensive to move and house the large number of people that were now associated with the government.
¡ It was impractical to construct buildings large enough to house the growing numbers of people and resources.
¡ It was too time-consuming for rulers to supervise the construction of all the necessary buildings.

Paragraph 5
A solution to the problem was advocated by experts from the continent. This was the use of continental principles of urban design and techniques of construction. These produced geometrically laid out capital cities whose major gates and buildings employed stone foundations, mortise-and-tenon framing (a technique for attaching timbers), and tile roofs that largely eliminated the problem of rot and the consequent need for replacement.

8.     The word “advocated” in the passage is closet in meaning to
¡ discovered
¡ solved
¡ promoted
¡ questioned

Paragraph 6
One the other hand, to construct cities and buildings of that sort required so much labor and material that their use effectively precluded periodic replacement or the transfer of a royal headquarters from site to site. Nevertheless, the notion of grand buildings and capital cities became immensely attractive to Japanese rulers during the seventh and eighth centuries. Continental regimes, the glorious new Chinese dynasties most notably, had them: they constituted an expression of political triumph, a legitimizing symbol of the first order. Moreover, the architecture was an integral part of Buddhism, and acceptance of this religion in Japan at this time fostered adoption of its building style.

9. According to paragraph 6, Japanese rulers were strongly attracted to continental architecture because
¡ permanent buildings could be constructed at very low cost
¡ adopting the continental architecture would not have an effect on religious practices in Japan
¡ political power could be expressed by constructing grand buildings
¡ important buildings could be replaced quickly by means of the latest technology

10. What can be inferred from paragraph 6 about Japanese rulers during the seventh and eighth centuries?
¡ They were well aware of, and strongly influenced by, developments in the royal courts of China.
¡ They strongly opposed the spread of the Buddhist religion.
¡ They saw the influence of continental regimes as a threat to local traditions.
¡ They sought to increase their mobility by adopting changes in architecture.

11. The word “fostered” in the passage is closet in meaning to
¡ quickened
¡ initiated
¡ determined
¡ encouraged

Paragraph 7
■These several conflicting factors—the need to modify palace and capital arrangements but the difficulty of doing so, the wish to enjoy grandeur but the reluctance to settle for a single, immobile court—all became evident by the mid-seventh century. ■Change did come, but slowly, and in the end a compromise system was devised. ■Traditional shrines of Shinto, the native religion of Japan, and many residential buildings continued to be built in the rottable, replaceable style that accommodated religious concerns and taboos, while city gates, major government buildings, and Buddhist temples were built in the continental fashion that met the need for multiple palaces fit with the custom of certain continental regimes that maintained summer palaces or other regional capitals where rulers could periodically reside on a temporary basis. ■

12. Which of the following is true of the compromise system mentioned in paragraph 7?
¡ Major government buildings combined the techniques of traditional and continental architecture.
¡ The continuing desire of rulers to maintain multiple palaces was taken into account.
¡ The balance of traditional and continental architecture was quickly achieved.
¡ Shinto shrines and most residences were constructed using continental architecture.

13. Look at the four squares [ ■ ] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.
Such temporary residences might have enabled Japanese rulers to better control the people living far from main capital.
Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong. To review the passage, click on View Text.
Answer Choices

Chinese architectural  styles  had influenced  traditional  Japanese architecture long before eighth-century Japanese rulers decided to create larger cities.

As religious ideas changed, it no longer was acceptable to construct buildings out of materials that required constant replacement.

Several factors complicated the architectural change, but a compromise system that considered both traditional and practical needs was eventually developed.

Before the eighth century, the palaces of the elite were relatively simple structures that could be easily built, repaired, and replaced.

Rulers’ desire for grand palaces conflicted with the expense of having multiple courts, which they also wanted, but a compromise was achieved in the eighth century.

Many areas in Japan were quick to adopt the changes in architectural styles, while other areas were more reluctant.

02
荷兰绘画
2019.05.19
荷兰中间阶层的出现促进了艺术家发展(提到了原因、形式等),对久远画作的时间鉴别(背景、画和现实社会的联系、鉴别的直接和间接方法)。

荷兰】话题重复
TPO18 Industrialization in the Netherlands and Scandinavia

2019.10.12
Text in Dutch Painting
荷兰艺术
关于荷兰的landscape绘画艺术,风景画中的元素包含的社会意义。

2018.08.25,2018.03.31,2017.06.03,2017.10.28
Dutch Tiles
荷兰瓷砖
荷兰一种瓷砖的发展,可以贴在墙上或者天花板上,后来又演变出许多的修饰图案。明代中国的瓷器引入后又模仿瓷器造出一种很薄的瓷砖。

真题还原】事实信息题
Paragraph 3
(3)Square pieces of pink firing clay were covered with white tin glaze and painted with polychrome(colored) decorations that ran over more than one tile. (4)At the beginning of the seventeenth century, when the Dutch wall tile became an important functional and decorative wall covering, different designs were introduced. (5)Animals, flowerpots, and designs with grapes and pomegranates were used on single tiles as central motifs within a diamond-shaped or circular border. (6)The corners of each tile were filled with stylized leaf motifs executed in the so-called “reversing technique” where the background around the pattern is painted in blue, leaving the actual design standing out in white. (7)When put together on the wall, the recurring corner motifs met and formed large decorative units almost equal in size to the central figurative designs.

According to Paragraph 3, which of the following is true of the design of a Dutch wall tile?
Its main purpose changed from being functional to being decorative.
Its ornamentation sometimes continued on to other tiles.
It was painted with a blue design surrounded by a white background.
Its corners were sometimes filled with images of animals.

解析:正确答案B。对应段落第3句“Square pieces of pink firing clay were covered with white tin glaze and painted with polychrome(colored) decorations that ran over more than one tile.”即方形瓷砖上覆盖着白锡釉和多色装饰图案,这些装饰图案延伸至多个瓷砖上;A选项与第4句矛盾;C选项与第6句矛盾,正好说反了;D选项与第5、6句矛盾,应是瓷砖的中心图案为动物,这些动物图案套在钻石形状或圆形框内,瓷砖的边角是叶子图案,这些重复出现的边角叶子图案一起相连时构成的图案将和中心图案一样大小。

2018.08.25,2018.03.13
Trade and Herring in Dutch Society
荷兰的贸易与渔业
荷兰在17世纪通过trade创造了很多就业机会,特别是捕鱼,荷兰人有专业舰队(specialized fleet)用于捕鱼,并且会有母船(mother ship)提供生活物资来保证舰队(fleet)能在海上待更久,荷兰人还尽可能保证它们捕到的鱼的quality,比如会用最好的盐等等。因为它们的品质实在太好所以一些靠近海洋、自己能够捕鱼的国家也愿意进口荷兰的鱼。捕鱼给荷兰人提供了很多机会,不光是捕鱼业,还有造船业,生产绳索(rope)的手工业,运输捕来的鱼去往各个集市的运输业,这样就造就了数不清的就业机会。又说到捕鲸,因为后来open sea的whale越来越少,所以他们又改进设备,使得能够去更困难的地方捕鲸。
crucial = very important
edge = advantage
overall = general
practically = almost
03
蜥蜴的体温调节
蜥蜴可以调节温度独立于周围环境温度。
04
Forms of Locomotion
(动物)运动的模式
2019.06.29,2018.10.28,2018.08.25,2014.12.06,2013.09.16
第一种在水中的locomotion,鱼类在水里消耗的能量少是因为水提供浮力,鱼只用提供向前的动力。提到鱼的自身密度和水差不多,可以让鱼保持浮在水里面。之后讲到鸭子,鸭子在水面游比在陆地还要多耗2倍能量,比鱼要多耗20倍能量,是因为在水面上游会产生一种bow wave,反向作用来对运动产生drag。鱼能很省能量是因为它完全submerged in water。还举了boat designer的例子。

第二种讲的是飞行动物,飞行动物要飞的比较快是因为到达一定速度才能保证它能飞起来。而且飞行的过程中还要克服自身的重量,不仅要提供向前的力,还要提供克服重力的力量。Flying耗能排第二,空气密度小,所以既有lift力量,也有drag力量。

第三种讲的是陆地行走的动物,主要讲人的行走的locomotion,主要要克服关节的摩擦力fraction、重力,还有每一步前进的动力accelerate和缓冲decelerate的动力。人行走比较耗能是因为每一步都要不断提供能量向前,每一步落下都要缓冲。Walking所以是耗能最大的。鱼和鸟比较省能量是因为不用缓冲。提到人骑自行车会比较省力,因为不用每次都缓冲。
Vocabulary Card
exhausting=extremely tiring使耗尽的
furthermore=in addition此外
consumed=used up消耗(尽)

真题原文
Forms of Locomotion
Using metabolic energy as “currency” to measure the “cost” of locomotion—that is, the amount of energy that must be spent to move from one place to another—we can compare the costs of different types of locomotion. Terrestrial locomotion—walking or running—is the most expensive form of locomotion. Given that humans are naturally terrestrial, many people may be surprised to learn that walking is so costly. The cost per kilogram of locomotion for human running is about five times higher than for the flight of a typical bird, and ten times more expensive than for fish swimming.

Just why is locomotion so cheap for a fish? The main reason is that the water supports most of the body weight of such a swimmer, so all the animal needs to do to swim is to produce enough force to overcome the drag of its own body. Most aquatic animals have nearly the same density as the water in which they swim, so they do almost no work to support their weight against gravity. However, swimming is cheap only for those animals well adapted to swimming completely submerged. When animals such as ducks and muskrat swim on the surface, they use two or three times more energy to swim on the surface than when submerged, and as much as twenty times more energy than fish of a similar size. This is because of what is called the “bow wave” any object moving on the surface of water pushes up a bow wave at the front, which streams alongside and trails back. Boat designers have long known that the bigger the bow wave, the harder it is to push a boat through the water. The bow wave produces extra drag on any body moving on the surface of water. An animal swimming on the surface of the water uses extra energy in order to overcome drag. Thus, for our purposes, efficient “swimming” means underwater locomotion by animals with streamlined bodies, not the exhausting, inefficient locomotion of humans in swimming pools.

Flying animals move through air that is less dense and less viscous than water, so why does flying cost more than swimming? First, most flying animals move much faster than a swimmer in order to produce enough lift (the upward force necessary to overcome gravity). This higher speed increases the drag that a flyer must overcome. Furthermore, a flyer has an extra source of drag that a swimmer does not have: the extra drag that comes from lift production. In a way, the extra drag represents the cost of supporting the flyer’s weight in air.

Walking (or running or galloping) is so costly because it involves at least three processes that require muscular work. The first is simply supporting the body’s weight. The second is overcoming the friction in joints and muscles, and the third is constantly producing accelerations (speeding up) and decelerations (slowing down). The exact proportion of muscular effort that goes into these three processes depends on the anatomy of a given animal, but the third process probably accounts for most of the energy used by the muscles. When a person takes a step, first one foot pushes off, which accelerates the body. Then the other foot swings forward and hits the ground, and as the weight shifts onto that foot, the body decelerates. Some of the leg muscles actively tense to act as shock absorbers during this deceleration. Momentum carries the body over the grounded foot, at which time that foot pushes off to accelerate the body, and the cycle repeats.

In terms of energy, walking is inefficient because of the acceleration and deceleration required with every step. Both the decelerations and accelerations need muscular effort and thus energy use. In swimming and flying, animals accelerate and decelerate relatively little over the course of a tail stroke or a wingbeat, so less energy is consumed by this process. As an analogy, consider riding a bicycle. When a person rides a bicycle, the bicycle does not accelerate or decelerate much with each turn of the petal. Thus, a person can ride a bicycle much faster than he or she could run using the same amount of effort.

05
商周时期的青铜器
商周的青铜器异同比较。列举了考古学家不确定、后期通过推断得出的结论,以及考古学家在有限的证据条件下可以确定的结论。
【青铜器】话题重复
2019.03.03,2018.01.06下午场
商周时期青铜器
介绍了中国商周时期的一个青铜器,是地位和财富的象征,作为陪葬品,保存得比较完整,除此之外还有很多伴随发掘的文物。这种青铜器的制作需要一种模具,外部由四部分组合而成,再加上一个内部的组合模具,最后注入金属得到成品。

2019.07.07,2017.11.25,2016.12.11
Explaining the Collapse of Early Bronze Age Societies
青铜时代早期社会衰落的解释
主要讲青铜年代的没落,青铜时期,一开始的机制是农民好好耕种,将多的产量部分上交,他们享受管理就是公共资源等,可是气候不好,人们收成不好,于是统治者拿到的收成就少了,而统治者的主要职责是祈求神灵让气候变好,人们就觉得统治者不好,开始舍弃他们。然后说除了气候之外,还有别的因素,因为之前气候也不好,但是没有人觉得这个统治者有问题。统治者不对的地方在于太迟意识到问题的严重性。他们一直沿袭之前的系统,以为这是正常的情况所以不是很在意,等到后面知道的时候已经太晚了。
was accompanied by = occurred together with 伴随着
profound = significant 深远的,重大的
adverse = unfavorable 不利的
implement = carry out 实施

06
古生物的外壳
07
Egypt in Early World History
早期世界史的埃及
2018.07.14
讲尼罗河沿岸城镇的商贸发展。
Vocabulary Card
undertook = began 着手
ingenuity = creativity 独创性
aided = helped 帮助
【尼罗河】话题重复
2019.09.21,2019.06.01,2019.01.12,2018.01.06,2017.09.06,2017.05.20
Dynastic Egypt and the Nile River
埃及王朝与尼罗河
第一段讲了埃及王朝的形成:撒哈拉沙漠曾经是一片绿洲,随着气候的变化逐渐沙漠化,由于撒哈拉的干旱导致人们被迫离开聚集到水源丰富的尼罗河畔,逐渐形成了村庄,城镇直至整个埃及王朝。

第二段讲了埃及的经济基础为农业以及埃及通过其他方式增强国力:尼罗河4-10月受大西洋暖湿气流的影响,10-4月受来自非洲干燥季风的影响,孕育出了发达的河谷农业,随着农业的发展,政治、贸易制度逐步建立,埃及人利用尼罗河来进行商业活动以及建立大型建筑所需要的材料也通过此来运输。

第三段讲了埃及王朝的繁荣与衰落:在6000BC时,埃及的一个王统一了上下埃及,形成了埃及王朝和各级官僚机构,来征税以及管理人口,随后建立了金字塔。这个王朝绵延了数十个朝代,时间之长没有其他王朝可以相比,尽管中途有经历其他国家侵略,但次数不多,此外建立的长子继承制以及亚历山大大帝和后来的古罗马、拜占庭人对埃及并不感兴趣,使得国家整体发展平稳,当地的历史遗迹因此得到了良好的保存。
relentless = without pause 不间断的
encountered = came into contact with 遇见
mobilize = put into action 动员
remarkable = impressive 杰出的

2019.08.24,2019.04.13,2018.09.09
Nile Floods
尼罗河洪水
埃及分为上埃及和下埃及,上埃及的人主要以放牧为生,游荡在沙漠中。下埃及发展了农业文化,农业起源稍晚一些,原因是埃及有相对充足的资源。最初农业起源种植的谷物和饲养的牲畜都是进口的。埃及农业灌溉主要靠河水,每年有一次可预测的尼罗河泛滥可以润湿土壤,清除堆积的盐从而有利植物生长。居民们唯一需要担心的是高度问题。

2019.07.28,2019.07.13,2019.04.13,2018.08.26,2018.03.03,2017.03.04,2017.11.18
Mesopotamian and Egyptian Settlements

美索不达米亚和埃及的定居方式
第1段:美索不达米亚的定居模式
埃及和美索不达米亚代表着人类定居模式的对立极端(opposite poles):埃及是村落定居模式(village-states),而美索不达米亚是城邦体系(city-states);具体来说,美索不达米亚的城邦体系是由人口稠密的城镇组成,不同城镇拥有相同的社会等级的象征符号(status symbols)、语言和经济系统,但彼此互相竞争、武力夺取领土和资源,有各自的首都(建有围墙),此外还控制着很多小中心区域和村庄。

第2段:美索不达米亚的城邦人口规模
美索不达米亚的城邦相对较大,人口较多,人口数量取决于城邦对周围地区的控制力和征收钱财能力;通常大量农民(a considerable number of farmers)也居住在城市里来获得对自身及财产的保护(protection for themselves and their possessions);据估计,美索不达米亚南部的80%以上的人口都居住在城市内。

第3段:城邦内手工业的发展
美索不达米亚的城市也支持手工艺生产(craft production),来满足贵族和各阶层的需求,这推动了公开市场的出现,活跃的市场活动转而激发了城邦之间对外来原材料(exotic raw materials)的竞争。最终,由于对手工艺产品的普遍需求,并且由于城邦周围高强度农业的发展可以产生剩余粮食,所以美索不达米亚城邦能够供养大量的非农业生产者/手工艺者,占到了人口总数的20%。

第4段:埃及的定居模式
埃及人口分布更为均匀(evenly dispersed),属于典型的村落定居模式;不像美索不达米亚,埃及有相对安全和定义清晰的边界(relatively secure and defined borders),这使得出现一个国家去统治整个地区成为可能;此外,由于尼罗河贯穿整个埃及,处处提供了同样的港口和冲积平原,所以人们不必竞争、均匀地散落在尼罗河两岸,贸易活动也均匀分布,既有各个村庄里的民间独立贸易,也有首都里受皇室赞助的贸易(royal patronage);并且与美索布达米亚防御性的城墙相反,埃及城墙的作用主要是作为划分城镇内不同区域的边界(defined and delineated sections of the town),例如用来划分寺庙区和居民区的围墙(walls separating a temple precinct from a residential area)。

第5段:埃及也有城市中心
虽然埃及主要是村庄定居模式,但在海路运输和陆路运输进入到埃及河谷的位置,也发展出了大城市。埃及城市与同时代的其他城市虽有相同之处,但它们受尼罗河文化以及环境所影响而具有了自己的独特特征(unique traits)。
classic=typical典型的
remnants=remains残余物
vigorous=lively有活力的
ringed=surrounded环绕

2018.10.20
尼罗河对埃及农业的影响
08
Habitat Selecting of Birds
鸟类栖息地的选择
2019.01.12,2016.10.26
关于鸟的栖息地的选择,一开始说了周围需要很多不同的植物,因为有不同的活动需要,然后用了鸟喜欢在电线的例子,说一些鸟需要空旷的地方去交流,然后讲了一些迁徙的鸟类寻找栖息地,更加倾向于以食物为首要因素,因为他们不能预测这里将来有没有食物,最后讲了一个科学家的实验,证明一种叫oven什么的鸟寻找栖息地的根据是地方空旷性,即便空旷的地方更容易被吃掉,但是因为那些地方他们也更好能捕捉食物。

美索不达米亚和埃及的定居方式
第1段:美索不达米亚的定居模式
埃及和美索不达米亚代表着人类定居模式的对立极端(opposite poles):埃及是村落定居模式(village-states),而美索不达米亚是城邦体系(city-states);具体来说,美索不达米亚的城邦体系是由人口稠密的城镇组成,不同城镇拥有相同的社会等级的象征符号(status symbols)、语言和经济系统,但彼此互相竞争、武力夺取领土和资源,有各自的首都(建有围墙),此外还控制着很多小中心区域和村庄。

第2段:美索不达米亚的城邦人口规模
美索不达米亚的城邦相对较大,人口较多,人口数量取决于城邦对周围地区的控制力和征收钱财能力;通常大量农民(a considerable number of farmers)也居住在城市里来获得对自身及财产的保护(protection for themselves and their possessions);据估计,美索不达米亚南部的80%以上的人口都居住在城市内。

第3段:城邦内手工业的发展
美索不达米亚的城市也支持手工艺生产(craft production),来满足贵族和各阶层的需求,这推动了公开市场的出现,活跃的市场活动转而激发了城邦之间对外来原材料(exotic raw materials)的竞争。最终,由于对手工艺产品的普遍需求,并且由于城邦周围高强度农业的发展可以产生剩余粮食,所以美索不达米亚城邦能够供养大量的非农业生产者/手工艺者,占到了人口总数的20%。

第4段:埃及的定居模式
埃及人口分布更为均匀(evenly dispersed),属于典型的村落定居模式;不像美索不达米亚,埃及有相对安全和定义清晰的边界(relatively secure and defined borders),这使得出现一个国家去统治整个地区成为可能;此外,由于尼罗河贯穿整个埃及,处处提供了同样的港口和冲积平原,所以人们不必竞争、均匀地散落在尼罗河两岸,贸易活动也均匀分布,既有各个村庄里的民间独立贸易,也有首都里受皇室赞助的贸易(royal patronage);并且与美索布达米亚防御性的城墙相反,埃及城墙的作用主要是作为划分城镇内不同区域的边界(defined and delineated sections of the town),例如用来划分寺庙区和居民区的围墙(walls separating a temple precinct from a residential area)。

第5段:埃及也有城市中心
虽然埃及主要是村庄定居模式,但在海路运输和陆路运输进入到埃及河谷的位置,也发展出了大城市。埃及城市与同时代的其他城市虽有相同之处,但它们受尼罗河文化以及环境所影响而具有了自己的独特特征(unique traits)。
classic=typical典型的
remnants=remains残余物
vigorous=lively有活力的
ringed=surrounded环绕

2018.10.20
尼罗河对埃及农业的影响
08
Habitat Selecting of Birds
鸟类栖息地的选择
2019.01.12,2016.10.26
关于鸟的栖息地的选择,一开始说了周围需要很多不同的植物,因为有不同的活动需要,然后用了鸟喜欢在电线的例子,说一些鸟需要空旷的地方去交流,然后讲了一些迁徙的鸟类寻找栖息地,更加倾向于以食物为首要因素,因为他们不能预测这里将来有没有食物,最后讲了一个科学家的实验,证明一种叫oven什么的鸟寻找栖息地的根据是地方空旷性,即便空旷的地方更容易被吃掉,但是因为那些地方他们也更好能捕捉食物。
【栖息地】话题重复

pertinent = relevant 相关的
ceases = stops 停止
integrated = combined 结合的

【鸟类栖息】话题重复
2019.09.22,2019.05.19,2019.04.13,2018.11.25,2018.05.12,2017.09.24,2017.09.09,2017.04.15,2014.04.19
Bird Colonies
鸟类群居
先说了在什么情况下鸟会聚集在一起,即集群(colony)。举了一种黄色小鸟的例子,在colony边缘的窝要比中心的窝更易损(vulnerable),所以colony中心的鸟窝分布密度很大。

鸟类住在colony当中有好处也有坏处,好处是比如可以躲避predator、一起孵蛋(hatch eggs)、share食物信息等。其中对付predator的手段有三种:一是集群攻击,二是用废弃的窝(abandoned nest)和新窝混合在一起迷惑敌人,三是把窝建在W鸟窝的周围,predator就不会靠近。这些方法中,一三鸟群受到的伤害最少。关于一起孵蛋,即便有被天敌吃掉的蛋,但总会有漏网之鱼(outnumber)活下来。最后说到食物来源(food supply),colony一般在食物来源的周围分布,还说到了一个食物丰富的地方,但是给鸟类留下的落脚点很少,所以就会使鸟群集中。

群居的坏处是容易感染寄生虫(parasite)带来疾病的传播,这一劣势的影响极其严重,肯能从而导致群体灭绝。文章最后表明作者态度,他认为利大于弊(advantages outweigh the disadvantages)。
vicinity=region(临近)地区
contribute to=add to促进
exhaust=use up耗尽
on balance=overall总的来说

真题还原
【句子简化题】
Because nests at the edges of breeding colonies are more vulnerable to predators than those in the centers, the preference for advantageous central sites promotes dense centralized packing of nests.
It is more advantageous for birds to choose central locations for their colonies rather than locations near the edges of their territory.
Compared to nests at the edges of colonies, centrally located nests are preferred for their safety from predators and therefore are more densely packed together.
Predators generally prefer the densely packed, central portion of nesting colonies, which can make this part of the colony more vulnerable to predators.
Birds nesting in colonies that are vulnerable to predators tend to prefer more densely packed nests to those less densely packed.
【解析】
正确答案是B,最大干扰项为A。原句意思是:因为繁育鸟群中的边缘巢穴比中央巢穴更易受捕猎者的攻击,所以对这些有优势的中央巢穴的偏爱就推动了紧密化的向中央集中的压缩筑巢。A选项的意思是,对鸟儿更有优势的是去选择它们领土当中的中央区而不是领土边缘区来为它们的种群筑造巢穴。大家体会出与原句的细微差别了吧,虽是细微差别,但意思立马变味。把A微调两个单词,就对了,即:
It is more advantageous for birds to choose central locations for their nest buildings rather than locations near the edges of their colonies.

真题原文:Bird Colonies

About 13 percent of bird species, including most seabirds, nest in colonies. Colonial nesting evolves in response to a combination of two environmental conditions: (1) a shortage of nesting sites that are safe from predators and (2) abundant or unpredictable food that is distant from safe nest sites. First and foremost, individual birds are safer in colonies that are inaccessible to predators, as on small rocky islands. In addition, colonial birds detect predators more quickly than do small groups or pairs and can drive the predators from the vicinity of the nesting area. Because nests at the edges of breeding colonies are more vulnerable to predators than those in the centers, the preference for advantageous central sites promotes dense centralized packing of nests.

The yellow-rumped cacique, which nests in colonies in Amazonian Peru, demonstrates how colonial birds prevent predation. These tropical blackbirds defend their closed, pouchlike nests against predators in three ways. First, by nesting on islands and near wasp nests, caciques are safe from arboreal mammals such primates. Second, caciques mob predators (work together as a group to attack predators). The effectiveness of mobbing increases with group size, which increases with colony size. Third, caciques hide their nests from predators by mixing active nests with abandoned nests. Overall, nests in cluster on islands and near wasp nests suffer the least predation.

Coordinated social interactions tend to be weak when a colony is first forming, but true colonies provide extra benefits. Synchronized nesting, for example, produces a sudden abundance of eggs and chicks that exceeds the daily needs of local predators. Additionally, colonial neighbors can improve their foraging by watching others. This behavior is especially valuable when the off-site food supplies are restricted or variable in location, as are swarms of aerial insects harvested by swallows. The colonies of American cliff swallows, for example, serve as information centers from which unsuccessful individual birds follow successful neighbors to good feeding sites. Cliff swallows that are unable to find food return to their colony, locate a neighbor that has been successful, and then follow that neighbor to its food source. All birds in the colony are equally likely to follow or to be followed and thus contribute to the sharing of information that helps to ensure their reproductive success. As a result of their enhanced foraging efficiency, parent swallows in large colonies return with food for their nestlings more often and bring more food each trip than do parents in small colonies.

To support large congregations of birds, suitable colony sites must be near rich, clumped food supplies. Colonies of pinyon jays and red crossbills settle near seed-rich conifer forests, and wattled starlings nest in large colonies near locust outbreaks. The huge colonies of guanay cormorants and other seabirds that nest on the coast of Peru depend on the productive cold waters of the Humboldt Current. The combination of abundant food in the Humboldt Current and the vastness of oceanic habitat can support enormous populations of seabirds, which concentrate at the few available nesting locations. The populations crash when their food supplies decline during El Nino years.

Among the costs, colonial nesting leads to increased competition for nest sites and mates, the stealing of nest materials, and increased physical interference among other effects. In spite of food abundance, large colonies sometimes exhaust their local food supplies and abandon their nests. Large groups also attract predators, especially raptors, and facilitate the spread of parasites and diseases. The globular mud nests in large colonies of the American cliff swallow, for example, are more likely to be infested by fleas or other bloodsucking parasites than are nests in small colonies. Experiments in which some burrows were fumigated to kill the parasites showed that these parasites lowered survivorship by as much as 50 percent in large colonies but not significantly in small ones. The swallows inspect and then select parasite-free nests in large colonies, they tend to build new nests rather than use old, infested ones. On balance, the advantages of colonial nesting clearly outweigh the disadvantages, given the many times at which colonial nesting has evolved independently among different groups of birds. Still lacking, however, is a general framework for testing different hypothesis for the evolution of coloniality.

09
Mites and Their Hosts
小虫与宿主
2018.09.09,2017.09.16
小虫(Mites)与宿主(hosts)之间有三种共生关系,分为损害宿主的寄生型(parasitism),对小虫有利但对宿主无害的偏离共生型(commensalism),互相都有利的互利共生型(mutualism)。科学家发现有的生物身上有专门供小虫生存的囊(mite pocket),但他们却是寄生关系,因为这些生物想要将损害降到最低,所以将小虫限制在囊中。
Vocabulary Card
customarily = commonly 习以为常地
supposition = imagination/assumption 想像,假设
replicating = copying 复制
investigate = examine 验证
10
Effects of Predation on Distribution of Species
捕猎者与猎物之间的周期循环
2018.01.13,2018.03.31
第一段:捕猎者如何影响猎物种群数量,并不像想象那么简单,例如狼群吃的是老弱病残的麋鹿,因而并没有影响麋鹿种群的整体数量。

第二段:实验室条件下,捕猎者会将猎物种群灭绝;但如果在实验中提供一个类似野外环境中的安全避难所,则猎物种群便能够生存下来,进而和捕猎者进入到一个周期循环中。

第三段:种群数量发生周期性循环是一些小哺乳动物种群的特征,这个循环周期似乎受两个因素的影响:食物供应和捕猎者。

第四段:野兔数量增长,导致野兔的食物数量下降,反过来又引起野兔数量下降,进入一个周期性循环直到食物数量反弹野兔数量再次恢复。

第五段:野兔的捕猎者加拿大山猫的数量会随着野兔的数量一起波动,进入一个十年的周期。

第六段:捕猎者和猎物之间的周期循环受食物供应和捕猎者两个因素的共同影响。

第七段:捕猎者的存在有利于保护生物多样性,因为如果没有捕猎者,那么猎物物种中占优势的物种会把其他物种竞争出局,从而只剩下有优势的单一物种存在。
Vocabulary Card
recovery = return to normal 恢复
complex = complicated 复杂的
modify = change 变化
excessive = too much 过多的
【捕猎关系】话题重复
2019.11.10,2018.03.31
Predator and Prey
捕食者与猎物
种群数量根据捕食关系的变化而变化,捕食者(predator)和猎物(prey)之间相互平衡。提到了猞猁(lynx)和野兔(hare)。

11
Origin of the Solar System
太阳系的起源
2018.10.14,2015.04.12
太阳系有秩序的特点导致天文学家认为整个太阳系是同一时间来自同一物质(太阳星云)形成的。某种外部力量(比如来自超新星爆炸的冲击波)诱发了太阳星云的倾塌,导致其内陷收缩,最终引力产生的内缩和旋转产生的外扩达到平衡,形成了盘状的原始太阳。在太阳星云倾塌期间,万有引力的收缩导致内部温度上升,使得太阳星云内部的尘粒裂解为分子原子,但外部(火星以外的区域)的温度仍然很低,很多尘粒表面覆盖着冰体。太阳的形成标志着太阳星云的引力收缩结束,因此升温也结束了,内部温度的下降使得高熔点的元素首先冷凝,如铁镍等金属和岩石类元素凝固出现,形成金属岩石块,彼此撞击聚合,形成原始行星体,之后成为太阳系的内部行星。由于内部行星和太阳星云碎屑的高速撞击产生很大热量,使得内部行星温度较高,并且由于自身引力场较低,所以无法吸引较轻的气体。太阳系内部行星形成的同时,外部行星也在形成,由于远离太阳温度较低,外部行星的主要成分是冰体,这也解释了它们为什么体积庞大密度低。
Vocabulary Card
frigid =cold 寒冷的
detected =discovered 发现、探明
extensive =large 庞大的
accounts for =explains 解释
ties =connections 联系

行星起源】话题重复
2019.09.07上午场,2019.04.14,2015.11.16
Determining the Ages of the Planets and the Universe
确定行星与宇宙的年龄
行星年龄的测定
太阳系的行星由太阳星云(solar nebular)里的金属/岩石颗粒碰撞聚合(collide and coalesce)而成,所以,确定行星的年龄也就是确定这些形成行星的岩石颗粒的年龄。但是,在地球上很难获得这些最初的岩石物质,因为它们要么被地球上的流水侵蚀(water erosion),要么被火山运动所改变。幸好,地球上还存在一种“活化石”——陨石(meteorite),陨石完好无损地保存了太阳系最初的金属/岩石颗粒。对陨石放射性元素测时(radiometrically dating),发现年龄都近乎在46亿年;同时月亮表面的岩石测时也接近46亿年。由于月亮表面没有流水没有大气作用,所以月亮表面的岩石年龄也就是形成行星的最初岩石年龄,即太阳系行星的年龄。

宇宙年龄的测定
宇宙的年龄测定,基于这样的一个事实:宇宙是从一个奇点大爆炸(Big Bang)膨胀产生。所以将现今宇宙逆推回爆炸原点的时间也就是宇宙时间。在此利用光在传播中会随着传播距离的增大而发生光波红移(red shift,由较短的可见光波the visible spectrum向较长的红波移动),那么,红移越严重的光波,穿越的距离越长(The farther these light waves have traveled through space, the greater the red shift they have undergone.),也即是从爆炸点传播到最远处的光波,由此推算所用的时间接近137亿年,也就是目前所能测知的宇宙年龄。
inevitable = certain 必然地
accordingly = correspondingly 相应地
cluster = group 群
enormous = huge 巨大的

2019.05.18,2018.06.10,2017.10.15,2017.07.15,2017.01.07
The Beginning of Planet Formation
行星形成的开端
讲到太阳系的水星、金星、地球和火星都是类地行星(terrestrial planets),即它们的内部主要都是有岩石土壤之类的物质组成。该段引出探讨这几种行星形成之初的情形:最初的时候,主要是一些气体围绕着一个圆盘(disc)旋转,同时也绕着太阳公转。这些圆盘主要是些颗粒物,但数量很少,不到2%。由于这些气体都是朝向同一个方向旋转的,里面的颗粒物没有相互碰撞、摩擦以致被消耗殆尽。相反,他们慢慢聚集,数量越来越多。逐渐变大。同时由于太阳辐射,导致气体散去,逐渐就留下了岩石组成的星球。后面提到了从陨石球粒(chondrules)发现的这些行星岩石都是在极高的温度(1000-1300摄氏度)下融化后再冷凝形成的。经过同位素(isotope)测定,更加证实了这一观点。同时行星形成之初,距离太阳较近,温度较高,使得聚集在这些行星周围大量的大气散去。但最后对该观点提出质疑,因为太阳辐射要使得行星上的大气散去,需要距离太阳在10光年的距离,而这个距离是不可能的。
leftover = remaining 剩余的
ensured = guaranteed 确保
matches = agrees with 符合
rival = competing 敌对的,竞争的
12
Stone Tools and Pottery Fragments
石器工具与陶瓷碎片
2019.09.21,2019.05.19,2018.09.02
文章讲述了研究人员对于古代这两种器具的研究,分别描述了两者的意义,如不同的纹饰体现了不同的氏族等。石制工具是最早的也是比较锋利的,科学家尝试着做了一把这样的工具为了研究其用途。关于瓷器工具,它们的数量很大且几乎都是手工低温制造的,缺点是不太持久耐用。
Vocabulary Card
detach = separate 使分离
minute = tiny 微小的
ambiguous = can be interpreted in more than one way 可以用多种方式解释的
portrayed = represented 表示,表现,说明
回忆2:
阅读
下午场
01
欧洲中世纪的饥荒
2019.07.07

02
Colonial America and the Navigation Acts
殖民时期的美国和航海法案
2019.06.01,2018.11.04,2018.03.24,2017.05.20,2015.03.07
第一段:17-18世纪,英国对北美殖民地颁布实施了一系列法案,用以打击海外竞争者保护英国本国产业,这些法案对北美殖民地的经济也产生了一些影响。

第二段-影响一:促进北美造船业、海事贸易、港口都市化。英国通过立法将贸易只局限在英国所属船只上进行,并将北美殖民地人也定义为英国人,因此北美船只也是英国船只,进而促进了北美造船业和海事贸易的发展,使得北美经济变得多样化并且更加自给自足;促生了很多繁忙的北美港口,之后成为大都市,比如纽约和费城。

第三段-影响二:对大米烟草等的影响。航海法案也限制北美殖民地对海外某些产品的出口(烟草和大米),这些产品只能先运到英国然后才能转运到其他国家,但这些产品占北美出口总量的百分比并不多,并且英国对这些产品所受的出口限制也做出了两个让步:允许美国烟草对英国市场的垄断;对这些产品退税。

第四段-影响三:促进经济多样化,但大规模服装制造受限。航海法案也促进了北美经济的多样化;英国将税收中一小部分钱拿来刺激北美殖民地的丝绸、钢铁、染料等各行业的发展;不过禁止大规模的服装制造业的发展,以防止和英国竞争,只允许小规模的服装加工。

第五段-影响四:低价享受从英国进口的产品。最后航海法案的施行使得北美殖民地的人们能够保持稳定的商品输出赚取大量财富,转而购买大量的从英国进口的低价商品,享受到了和英国中产阶级一样的生活待遇。
Vocabulary Card
swift = fast 快速的
significant = considerable 重要的
modest = relatively small 小的
Consequently = therefore 因此
真题原文
Colonial America and the Navigation Acts

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the British parliament enacted a number of laws, called Navigation Acts, governing commerce between Britain and its overseas colonies. For example, the Navigation Acts of 1660 and 1663 barred the empire’s colonial merchants from exporting such commodities as sugar and tobacco anywhere except to England and from importing goods in non-English ships. Similarly, the Molasses Act of 1733 taxed all foreign molasses (a thick liquid drained from sugarcane and used to make rum) entering the mainland American colonies at sixpence per gallon. This act was intended less to raise revenue than to serve as a protective tariff (tax) that would benefit British West Indian sugar producers at the expense of their French rivals. By 1750 a long series of Navigation Acts were in force, with several effects on the North American colonial economy.

For one thing, the laws limited all imperial trade to British ships, defined as those with British ownership and crews that were three-quarters British. For purposes of the legislation, Parliament classified all colonists as British. This restriction not only contributed to Great Britain’s rise as Europe’s foremost shipping nation but also laid the foundations for an American shipbuilding industry and merchant marine. By the 1750s one-third of all imperial vessels were American-owned, mostly by merchants in the northeast and in mid-Atlantic colonies. The swift growth of this merchant marine diversified the northern colonial economy and made it more self-sufficient. The expansion of colonial shipping in turn accelerated urbanization by creating a need for centralized docks, warehouses, and repair shops in the colonies. By 1770 Philadelphia and New York City had emerged as two of the British Empire’s busiest ports.

The Navigation Acts also barred the export of certain “enumerated goods” to foreign nations unless those items first passed through England or Scotland. The American mainland’s chief items of this sort were tobacco, rice, furs, indigo (a Carolina plant that produced a blue dye), and naval supplies (such as masts and tar). Parliament never restricted grain, livestock, fish, lumber, or rum, which altogether made up 60 percent of American colonial exports. Furthermore, Anglo-American exporters of tobacco and rice—the chief commodities affected by enumeration—had their burdens reduced by two significant concessions. First, Parliament gave tobacco growers a monopoly over the British market by excluding foreign tobacco, even though this hurt British consumers. (Rice planters enjoyed a natural monopoly because they had no competitors.) Second, Parliament tried to minimize the added cost of landing tobacco and rice in Britain (where customs officials collected duties on both) by refunding the duties on all tobacco and rice that the colonists later shipped to other countries.

The navigation system’s impact on the colonies encouraged economic diversification as well. Parliament used British tax money to pay modest incentives to Americans producing such items as silk, iron, dyes, hemp, and lumber, which Britain would otherwise have had to import from other countries, and it raised the price of commercial rivals’ imports by imposing protective tariffs on them. The trade laws did prohibit Anglo-Americans from competing with large-scale British manufacturing of certain products, most notably clothing. However, colonial tailors, hatters, and other small clothes manufacturers could continue to make any item of dress in their households or small shops. Manufactured by low-paid labor, British clothing imports generally undersold whatever the colonists could have produced given their higher labor costs. The colonists were also free to produce iron and built numerous ironworks.

Finally, the Navigation Acts made the colonies a protected market for low-priced consumer goods and other exports from Britain. Steady overseas demand for colonial products created a prosperity that enabled colonists to consume ever-larger amounts not only of clothing but of dishware, home furnishings, tea, and a range of other items both produced in Britain and imported by British and colonial merchants from elsewhere. Consequently, the share of British exports sold to the colonies rapidly increased from just 5 percent in 1700 to almost 40 percent by 1760. Cheap imported goods enabled many colonists to adopt a lifestyle similar to that of middle-class Britons.

03
Inca Highland Adaptations
印加高地适应性
2018.05.12,2017.10.28,2017.07.15
生活在高地(highland)上的印加人主要依赖农业,高地有充足的降雨但也有自然灾害。为预防这些灾害,印加人有两种办法:一是根据海拔的不同种植多种农作物以抵抗不同的自然灾害,即便发生了自然灾害,也不至于全部歉收,这保证了丰收。印加人还会结合放牧;二是发明了一种保存多余农作物的方法,可以保存土豆之类的。因为当地土层较薄、生长季较短,所以印加人通过保存食物并且平均分配每年的粮食,来保障粮食安全。缺少某些东西的时候不会进行贸易而是派一些人去远的地方建立殖民地(colony),种植只有低海拔可以种植的庄稼,把需要的东西带回来,并且殖民者保持了自己在国内的权利和地位。
Vocabulary Card
self-sufficient = independent 自给自足的
constant = occurring periodically 连续的
exploited = used 利用
retained = kept 保持
04
Vocalization in Frogs
青蛙叫声
2018.05.19,2018.05.12,2015.05.09,2017.09.09
科学家发现雄性的南美洲泡蟾(tungara frogs) 能发出两种叫声,一种是单纯的whine,在没有交配竞争者的情况下发出,另一种是whine-chuck,在有竞争者出现的时候发出。为探究雄性泡蟾在什么情况下发出第一种叫声,什么情况下发生第二种叫声,以及叫声的作用,科学家们进行了一系列的实验。科学家们假设它们平时不发出whine-chuck是为了节省能量,但实际上并不是,是因为这种声音也很吸引捕食者。
Vocabulary Card
incited = stimulated 刺激
substantial = considerable 大量的
outweighs = exceeds 超过
05
The Cambrian Explosion
寒武纪大爆发
2019.09.21,2018.11.17,2018.01.28,2017.11.26,2017.08.27,2016.11.05,2015.01.25
讲了为什么C时代进化快,和为什么之后没有物种爆发。先说了 C时代之前物种进化的很慢,之后在C一开始就飞速进化,造成这个原因有C时代氧气比以前多,基因的复杂性的显现,气候终于合适了,以及没有捕食者,最后一段说,之后再也不会有物种大爆发的时代了。原因一之后捕食者也同样强大,会吃掉新物种,原因二因为生物只能在body plan的基础上进化,不会有新的body structure, 原因三基因的局限。
Vocabulary Card
ongoing = continuing持续
corresponds to = matches匹配
complexity = sophistication复杂
allowing = making possible使可能

真题原文
The Cambrian Explosion
The earliest fossil evidence for eukaryotes complex organisms whose cells contain a distinct nucleusdates to only about 1.2 billion years ago. The fossil record suggests that animal evolution progressed slowly, with relatively little change seen between fossils from 1.2 billion years ago and those from a half-billion years later. But then something quite dramatic happened as can be judged by the many different animal groups that suddenly appear in the fossil record.

Biologists classify animals according to their basic body plans. For example, the basic body plan shared by mammals and reptiles is fundamentally different from that of insects. Animals are grouped by body plan into what biologists call phyla. Mammals and reptiles both belong to the single phylum Chordata, which includes animals with internal skeletons. Insects, crabs, and spiders belong to the phylum Arthropoda, which contains animals with body features such as jointed legs, an external skeleton, and segmented bodies. Classifying animals into phyla is an ongoing project for biologists, but modern animals appear to comprise about 30 different phyla, each representing a different body plan.

Remarkably, nearly all of these different body plans, plus a few others that have gone extinct, make their first known appearance in the geological record during a period spanning only about 40 million years less than about 1 percent of Earth's history. This remarkable flowering of animal diversity appears to have begun about 545 million years ago, which corresponds to the start of the Cambrian period. Hence it is called the Cambrian explosion.

The fact that the Cambrian explosion marks the only major diversification of body plans in the geological record presents us with two important and related questions: Why, so long after the origin of eukaryotes, did the pace of evolution suddenly accelerate dramatically at the beginning of the Cambrian, and why hasn't there been another period of similarly explosive diversification since then?We can identify at least four factors that might have contributed to the Cambrian explosion. First, the oxygen level in our atmosphere may have remained well below its present level until about the time of the Cambrian explosion. Thus, the rapid diversification in animal life may have occurred at least in part because oxygen reached a critical level for the survival of larger and more energy-intensive life forms.

A second factor that may have been important was the evolution of genetic complexity. As eukaryotes evolved, they developed more and more genetic variation in their DNA. Some scientists believe that the Cambrian explosion marks the point at which organisms developed certain kinds of genes (homeobox genes) that control body form and that could be combined in different ways, allowing the evolution of a great diversity of forms over time.

A third factor may have been climate change. Geological evidence points to a series of episodes in which Earth froze over before the Cambrian began. The extreme climate conditions of these episodes eliminated many species, leaving a wide array of ecological niches available into which new species could rapidly evolve when climate conditions eased at the beginning of the Cambrian.

A fourth factor may have been the absence of efficient predators. Early predatory animals were probably not very sophisticated, so some evolving animals that later might have been eliminated by predation were given a chance to survive, making the beginning of the Cambrian period a window of opportunity for many different adaptations to establish themselves in the environment.
This last idea may partly explain why no similar explosion of diversity has taken place since the Cambrian: once predators were efficient and widespread, it may have been virtually impossible for animals with entirely new body forms to find an environmental niche in which they could escape predation. Or it may be that while more body plans may have been possible at some early point in evolution, it was not possible to evolve into those other body plans from the body plans that evolved in the Cambrian. Or perhaps the various body forms that arose during the Cambrian explosion represent the full range of forms possible given the basic genetic resources that characterize all Earth's organisms. In any case, no fundamentally new body forms have emerged since the Cambrian explosion.

本场其他词汇题补充
avid = enthusiastic 热心的
to some degree = to a certain extent 某种程度上
intersect 相交,交叉
analogous = similar to 与...相似
回忆3:
上午场:
综合写作
冰山做淡水来源是否好?
1、运输方便
2、对环境友好
3、节省成本
听力反驳:
1、受风影响,运输不便,还容易撞
2、冰会融化,盐分进入淡水破坏淡水生态
3、需要切割,成本并不低

独立写作
题目:有人向你咨询assignment feedback,你认为先说positive再说negative(先扬后抑)更effective,还是先negative再positive(先抑后扬)更effective?

立场:Positive comments for an assignment is more effective.
理由:
1.健康:先扬后抑,看到积极的评论,人们普遍都是觉得很开心的,认为自己的付出得到了回报,压力就不会那么大---但人无完人,得到肯定之后再看到negative comments自然就会虚心接受,并不会因为是不好的评论而产生不好的情绪或压力---压力减小,做事情的效率就会more effective;相反地,如果先看到了negative comments,人们的压力就会增大---在有压力的情况下,做事情的效率不高。
2.知识:positive的评价会激励人们---会更想去深入学习、获取知识,与此同时,后面的negative的评价就会让他们觉得是中肯的意见,接受意见并且加以改正,会使得这一方面的知识更加巩固,以后在做相应assignment的时候有了巩固的知识效率可以提高;如果先看到了negative comments,产生抵触心理,问题得不到解决,下次再遇到的时候还会犯同样的错误,并不能提高效率。
3.社交:评论人和做这个assignment的人之间的关系会变好---因为做这个assignment的人先看到好的评价之后会对评论人产生好感,觉得有人肯定他的作品,内心是属于接受评论者的状态;当看到后面negative的评论时,会觉得评论人说的很中肯,更容易接受他的comments---后续的合作、交流、作业都会more effective。但如果先看到了negative的评论,会影响做assignment的人对评论人的看法,厌恶评论人,不愿意接受和改正自己的不足。

下午场:
综合写作
用细菌处理海上石油污染
文章不同意因为:1细菌生物入侵;2.加别的营养物质给细菌会吸引其他生物破坏生态;3.会让企业不在乎这个问题。
听力同意:1.不会生物入侵因为细菌吃完油就死了;2.传统方法太慢而且生态平衡会很快恢复;3.有其他产业的人在乎,所以公司也必须在乎。

独立写作
题目:捐赠给慈善组织,是自己指定钱怎么用好,还是由慈善组织决定好?
立场:由慈善机构决定我们的捐款好。
理由:
1.知识:慈善组织具有相应的知识储备,例如野生动物保护、赈灾所需要的物资等知识,知道怎么物尽其用,用对地方,所以由慈善机构决定我们的捐款比较好。
2.效率:慈善组织可以把钱赞起来,合理分配投入每个项目中,不需要再花时间统计每个项目大家分别捐赠了多少,再抽调多余的部分补到不足的地方,更加高效,所以由慈善机构决定我们的捐款好。
3.让步段:自己指定钱怎么用好可以明确地知道钱的流向,对于个人和社会治安是有好处的;如果钱交给慈善组织决定,不能避免组织欺骗、拿钱跑路的概率,扰乱社会治安。
回忆4:
口语
T1
Doyou agree or disagree with the following sentence:
With the increasing popularity of technology, parents should control children’saccess to social media.
T2
阅读:学生建议学校设定不同的返校日期,让学生可以错峰分流入住宿舍,避免同一天返校。而且这样还可以有同学做志愿者。
听力:女生同意。这样可以避免混乱,而且新搬进去的可以帮助后搬进去的。
T3
阅读:tempting blind 用奖励来刺激人们做一件不愿意做的事情
听力:教授规定自己做家务的时候听喜欢的电子书。以及为了看好看的电影而去健身房健身。
T4
植物防止被过度啃食的方法。
方法一是有再生能力。比如一种grass的根在土里很深。所以就算上面被吃了也没事,还会再长出来的。
方法二是让自己不好吃或者不能吃。比如一种grass的新草长在旧的或者死掉的腐烂的老草里,所以动物就不会去吃。
回忆5:
听力
对话
C1:学生想要找工作,工作人员建议他去参加记者招聘会专场,还可以去模拟面试会,会有针对性的模拟面试练习。
C2:学生想采访老师写一篇传记文章,约时间来采访他。
C3:学生询问学校的停车问题。

讲座
Art:教授介绍50年代欧洲文艺复兴时期的音乐,当时受古希腊的影响,美德、服务社会等理念对音乐家影响很深。
Art:教授介绍了集中绘画保存不容易褪色的方法。
Biology:教授介绍捕食者和被捕食者关系,比如发出噪音的蜥蜴,一种蜥蜴会在敌人在的时候逃走的时候发出很大得声音。大家探讨原因,学生说是为了提醒同伴。但是这个观点不对,主要原因还是警告敌人我很强壮、我跑的很快之类的。
Archaeology:教授介绍巨石阵的作用,描述了巨石阵的样式。目前科学家对于巨石阵的作用有2种猜测:用于宗教或者用于观测天文。最新有人认为可能是一种纪念先祖的仪式。教授说讨论的时候要注意,不要被自己的文化背景影响。
History:教授介绍了欧洲中世纪的饥荒的原因,主要是极端气候导致农作物产量下降以及动物死亡,还有可能是因为战争。
Material Science:教授课上讲钻石,说钻石很硬,有很多工业用途,钻石本体非常纯净透明,有学生说看到过很多颜色甚至黑色的钻石。教授介绍黑色钻石的来源,黑钻石并非在矿洞出产,而是在溪流河床中,黑钻石的碳原子和其他钻石不同,所以黑钻的表面比较粗糙。
回忆6:
阅读
Girl with a PearlEarring by Johannes Vermeer is often considered to be the best knownpiece of Dutch art.
商周的青铜器(19年3月3日题,但是类似2010年的老题,Jade and Bronze in ancient China,青铜器跟宗教仪式有关,是身份地位的象征等)
Forms of Locomotion(14年12月题;海陆空运动方式效率比较)
The Cambrian Explosion(16年11月考题,且17年8月27日,11月26日以及18年1月28日重复过。并且别忘了TPO5-3是一篇同名考题)寒武纪大爆发
古埃及某地的发展 Dynastic Egypt and theNile River(17年5月20日考题;埃及王朝的形成,撒哈拉的干旱导致人们被迫离开聚集到水源丰富的尼罗河畔,逐渐形成了村庄,城镇直至整个埃及王朝;农业是埃及经济基础;埃及王朝的繁荣与衰落)
动物栖息地选择(17年8月27日题。举例鸟是如何选择它们的栖息地,比如根据individual plants。由于需要在在食物和季节变化之前做决定,还是要看structuralfactor。非常类似habitat selection。)
Predator and Prey(18年3月31日考题;Predator和prey之间的关系,捕食者有助于维持猎物种群的稳定。可以参考TPO27-3Predator-Prey Cycles)
荷兰中产阶级的艺术欣赏发展(19年10月12日刚考过Text in Dutch Painting,艺术绘画中文字的演变)
日本与中国的绘画不同(17年11月25日题)
欧洲工业化,需求增长,举例英国
中世纪饥荒
蜥蜴控制身体温度
物种竞争
小行星带
The asteroids ofthe inner Solar System

真考词汇题回顾
avid
ingenuity
reveal
periodically
overtake
solely
ultimate
oblige
striking
to some extent
回忆7:
口语
考题解析
Task 1: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: with the increasing popularity of technology, parents should control children’s access to social media.

Task 2
阅读:【学校建议】- 后勤类
学校应该设定不同的返校日期,让学生们错开时间分流入住宿舍。
听力:【学生态度】: agree
(1) 可以避免同一天返校,错开高峰期
(2) 还可以有人做志愿者帮助学生们。

Task 3
【名词解释】- 心理学类
tempting blind,一个让人开始做自己不喜欢的但是有益的事情的策略
【教授举例】
教授举了自己的两个例子,一个是做家务,他喜欢看书但不喜欢打扫卫生,所以他规定自己在只有做家务的时候才可以听书。第二个例子是,他不喜欢健身,但是可以一边骑车一边看电影。这样可以激励自己一周去几次健身房。

Task 4:
【授课主题】-生物类
植物为了防止自身过度被动物啃食的方法
方法1:再生能力,举例一种草的根在土里长得很深,即使是地面上的部分被吃掉了,也不影响他们再长出来。
方法2:让植物本身不好吃或者不能吃。举例一种新的草,长在旧的死的腐烂的草里面,动物们就不回去吃了。
回忆8:
听力  考题解析

对话C1 校园服务
学生想要找工作,工作人员建议他去参加记者招聘会专场,还可以去模拟面试会,会有针对性的模拟面试练习。

对话C2 校园服务
学生想采访老师写一篇传记文章,约时间来采访他。

对话C3 校园服务
学生询问学校的停车问题。

Lecture 1 艺术
教授介绍50年代欧洲文艺复兴时期的音乐,当时受古希腊的影响,美德、服务社会等理念对音乐家影响很深。

Lecture 2 艺术
教授介绍了集中绘画保存不容易褪色的方法。

Lecture 3 生物
教授介绍捕食者和被捕食者关系,比如发出噪音的蜥蜴,一种蜥蜴会在敌人在的时候逃走的时候发出很大得声音。大家探讨原因,学生说是为了提醒同伴。但是这个观点不对,主要原因还是警告敌人我很强壮、我跑的很快之类的。

Lecture 4 考古
教授介绍巨石阵的作用,描述了巨石阵的样式。目前科学家对于巨石阵的作用有2种猜测:用于宗教或者用于观测天文。最新有人认为可能是一种纪念先祖的仪式。教授说讨论的时候要注意,不要被自己的文化背景影响。

Lecture 5 历史
教授介绍了欧洲中世纪的饥荒的原因,主要是极端气候导致农作物产量下降以及动物死亡,还有可能是因为战争。

Lecture 6 材料科学
教授课上讲钻石,说钻石很硬,有很多工业用途,钻石本体非常纯净透明,有学生说看到过很多颜色甚至黑色的钻石。教授介绍黑色钻石的来源,黑钻石并非在矿洞出产,而是在溪流河床中,黑钻石的碳原子和其他钻石不同,所以黑钻的表面比较粗糙。
回忆9:
口语
12月1号上午
题目:
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:parents should control the access of their children to the social media.
Sample Answer:
Personally speaking, I don’t think it’s a good idea for the parents to limit the access of their children to the social media. Today, children become very dependent on the WeChat, twitter or Instagram to communicate with their friends or make new friends from different parts of the world. If the parents are very strict with the access to social media, children will be shut out of the world. Obviously, you don’t want to be isolated from other kids, right? For example, my friend Jack is now studying in California, and I talk to him about the new things frequently, of course, through WeChat. We catch up with each other freely. Like he would show me some wonderful pictures he took during a trip to Mexico, and I would complain to him about one of my classmates. We actually enjoy talking to each other and exchange ideas like that.  

12月1日下午
题目:
Which job would you choose? One job provides you with high salary, but you are required to work extra hours frequently, even on weekends; the other job offers you a low salary, but it will not take up your weekends.
Sample Answer:
Well, personally speaking, I would choose a job that offers me with some free time, even though that job does not pay much. Because I have a lot of things to do on the weekends. For example, I want to go hiking with my friends, have a family get-together or just watch a movie with my boyfriend. If my weekends and holidays are taken up, I will feel that a very important part of my life has been taken away by work, and that’s really annoying for me. And also, money is not that important for me anyway because I don’t spend too much money on things that I can not afford. I’m not a big fan of the latest version of iPhone. I don’t spend extra on the cosmetics as many girls do. Consequently, instead of sacrificing my time to work for the company, I’d choose a job with a relatively flexible schedule.
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2019年11月16日托福考试总体反馈-重磅来袭!2019年11月16日托福命中独立和综合大作文真题原题(都是旧题),命中ABCDE卷多篇阅读真题原题(绝大部分都是阅读旧题真题原题),命中口语、听力各四到五部分,总体难度适中,CPU资料阅读、写作、听力、口语等全面大中,全面开花!11月16日的托福考试,依然是几套试卷组合,这种模式会一直持续下去。今年托福考试几大特点:(1)听力、口语、写作、阅读老题重复量巨大。(3)在大部分考试中,写作听力一直是四项难度最大,并且对话难度超过讲座)(4)阅读、独立和综合写作重复老题,是我们TOEFL CPU资料里面的。11月16日托福考试大部分题目都在我们CPU资料原题命中!祝贺CPU会员将出现不少100-110分以上托福天才!本次考试听力阅读里大多是老题,仍然大量重复2014-2019年的老题,尤其是我们CPU托福资料的真题。今天口语和写作也是老题居多。ETS今年虽然在考试形式上变化很多,但其实使用的新题非常少,大都是在重复2014-2019年大陆考过的新题。这一方面说明,ETS出题成本太高(80万美金一套),所以出题量小。另一方面说明,托福考试的整体趋势还是稳定的。形式上的变化(多套试卷,阅读加试,听力非经典加试),并不能改变这个考试的内在。今天听力,口语,阅读和写作都重复老题。总体反馈请复制链接进入

特别提醒:托福考试几十多年来,有非常严格的规律性和出题思路。全世界有6到10个托福大考区,而只有一个美国托福考试中心几个人在出题,每个考区每个月要出2-4份考卷,一个月出12-24份考卷,考官如何保证达到难度一样呢,如何保证新题难度、准确度和评价机制公平呢,所以只能是几十年来托福真题题库旧题目的有效组合,新题不能超出10%。事实上每份托福真题卷子都是80%-90%以上旧题原题真题。近年来,阅读几套卷里大多是老题,ETS今年虽然在考试形式上变化很多,但其实使用的新题非常少,大都是在重复2014-2019年大陆考过的老题。这一方面说明,ETS出题成本太高(80万美金一套),所以出新题量小。另一方面说明,托福考试的整体趋势还是稳定的。形式上的变化(多套试卷,阅读加试,听力非经典加试),并不能改变这个考试的内在。除了阅读之外,听力,口语和写作都大部分是重复老题。多年托福考官和专家Edward老师非常熟悉托福出题规律和听说读写题库出题组合卷子的秘诀, CPU资料因此而诞生,可以快速帮助考生提高20-60分!具体请阅读

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