雅思托福英语全球网

 找回密码
 立即注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

查看: 3410|回复: 0

2019年5月4日托福听说读写真题答案回忆蹲点汇总+解析

[复制链接]

2044

主题

7440

帖子

2万

积分

管理员

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

积分
20228
发表于 2019-5-3 22:41:45 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
2019年5月4日托福听说读写真题答案回忆蹲点汇总+解析请看最下面
欢迎美国、加拿大等北美托福考区和其它托福考区的考生积极回忆在我们微信:504918228, ieltstofel3,ielts2013,或者QQ504918228,QQ26346059上面
                                    
互动咨询微信:504918228 或 ieltstofel3或 ielts2013 或托福公共微信:tofelielts
互动咨询QQ:504918228, 26346059, 450784339

快速提高20到60分:TOEFL CPU托福考试真题题库答案和最新每一场托福考试预测答案范文机经说明http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-231387-1-1.html

托福冲刺快速加分30-80分套餐系列:
TOEFL CPU资料+1对1托福考官专家型辅导请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-87-1-1.html

托福公共微信平台1,2:ieltstofel,tofelielts----最新托福考试题库,最新每一场托福预测及配套完整答案范文机经,快速提高托福20-60分,最新各种不同层次基础托福考试实用成功经验,托福100以上,110以上高分实用复习备考经验,国内外最新每一场托福口语笔试蹲点题目汇总,最新托福听说读写解题方法技巧和考试诀窍,最新托福考试信息资料

超高命中率加拿大、美国等北美托福真题预测机经汇总2019年5月6月7月8月至12月北美托福听说读写答案范文机经http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-233224-1-1.html

超高命中率大陆考区托福真题预测机经汇总2019年5月6月7月8月至12月托福听说读写答案范文http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-232706-1-1.html


【托福真题答案Toefl Killer2019511日托福IBT考试真题预测答案、托福听力、口语、阅读、写作预测答案范文机经精准冲刺版Toeflin China Pass Toefl Higher【快速提高2060分,超高命中率,精准小范围】-2019511日托福考试真题精准小范围预测答案范文机经CPU冲刺版--2019511日托福听力口语写作阅读真题精准小范围预测答案范文机经冲刺版【托福全球网TOFEL CPU快速提高2060分】TOFEL Prediction --2019511日托福IBT真题预测听说读写答案冲刺版【托福TOFELCPU快速提高分数20-60分,超高命中率,托福备考核心资料VIP】每场必中大部分考试内容,一次性攻破托福VIP资料,托福考官专家真题预测TOFEL CPUTOFEL 2019
【托福真题预测答案】2019511日托福IBT真题预测答案范文机经精准冲刺版Toefl in ChinaToefl Killer,Pass Toefl Higher快速提高2060--2019511日托福听力、口语、阅读、写作真题预测题目完整答案范文解析-快速提高分数20-60分【Toefl Killer,PassToefl Higher快速提高2060分,超高命中率】一次性攻破托福VIP资料,托福考官专家真题预测CPUTOFEL2019请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-243454-1-1.html


【托福真题答案Toefl Killer2019518日托福IBT考试真题预测答案、托福听力、口语、阅读、写作预测答案范文机经精准冲刺版Toeflin China Pass Toefl Higher【快速提高2060分,超高命中率,精准小范围】-2019518日托福考试真题精准小范围预测答案范文机经CPU冲刺版--2019518日托福听力口语写作阅读真题精准小范围预测答案范文机经冲刺版【托福全球网TOFEL CPU快速提高2060分】TOFEL Prediction --2019518日托福IBT真题预测听说读写答案冲刺版【托福TOFELCPU快速提高分数20-60分,超高命中率,托福备考核心资料VIP】每场必中大部分考试内容,一次性攻破托福VIP资料,托福考官专家真题预测TOFEL CPUTOFEL 2019
【托福真题预测答案】2019518日托福IBT真题预测答案范文机经精准冲刺版Toefl in ChinaToefl Killer,Pass Toefl Higher快速提高2060--2019518日托福听力、口语、阅读、写作真题预测题目完整答案范文解析-快速提高分数20-60分【Toefl Killer,PassToefl Higher快速提高2060分,超高命中率】一次性攻破托福VIP资料,托福考官专家真题预测CPUTOFEL2019请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-243455-1-1.html


【托福真题答案Toefl Killer2019519日托福IBT考试真题预测答案、托福听力、口语、阅读、写作预测答案范文机经精准冲刺版Toeflin China Pass Toefl Higher【快速提高2060分,超高命中率,精准小范围】-2019519日托福考试真题精准小范围预测答案范文机经CPU冲刺版--2019519日托福听力口语写作阅读真题精准小范围预测答案范文机经冲刺版【托福全球网TOFEL CPU快速提高2060分】TOFEL Prediction --2019519日托福IBT真题预测听说读写答案冲刺版【托福TOFELCPU快速提高分数20-60分,超高命中率,托福备考核心资料VIP】每场必中大部分考试内容,一次性攻破托福VIP资料,托福考官专家真题预测TOFEL CPUTOFEL 2019
【托福真题预测答案】2019519日托福IBT真题预测答案范文机经精准冲刺版Toefl in ChinaToefl Killer,Pass Toefl Higher快速提高2060--2019519日托福听力、口语、阅读、写作真题预测题目完整答案范文解析-快速提高分数20-60分【Toefl Killer,PassToefl Higher快速提高2060分,超高命中率】一次性攻破托福VIP资料,托福考官专家真题预测CPUTOFEL2019请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-243458-1-1.html


【托福真题答案Toefl Killer2019526日托福IBT考试真题预测答案、托福听力、口语、阅读、写作预测答案范文机经精准冲刺版Toeflin China Pass Toefl Higher【快速提高2060分,超高命中率,精准小范围】-2019526日托福考试真题精准小范围预测答案范文机经CPU冲刺版--2019526日托福听力口语写作阅读真题精准小范围预测答案范文机经冲刺版【托福全球网TOFEL CPU快速提高2060分】TOFEL Prediction --2019526日托福IBT真题预测听说读写答案冲刺版【托福TOFELCPU快速提高分数20-60分,超高命中率,托福备考核心资料VIP】每场必中大部分考试内容,一次性攻破托福VIP资料,托福考官专家真题预测TOFEL CPUTOFEL 2019
【托福真题预测答案】2019526日托福IBT真题预测答案范文机经精准冲刺版Toefl in ChinaToefl Killer,Pass Toefl Higher快速提高2060--2019526日托福听力、口语、阅读、写作真题预测题目完整答案范文解析-快速提高分数20-60分【Toefl Killer,PassToefl Higher快速提高2060分,超高命中率】一次性攻破托福VIP资料,托福考官专家真题预测CPUTOFEL2019请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-243456-1-1.html


【托福真题答案Toefl Killer201961,615,616,629,76,77,713,89月托福IBT考试真题预测答案、托福听力、口语、阅读、写作预测答案范文机经精准冲刺版Toeflin ChinaPass Toefl Higher【快速提高2060分,超高命中率,精准小范围】-20196789月托福考试真题精准小范围预测答案范文机经CPU冲刺版--20196789月托福听力口语写作阅读真题精准小范围预测答案范文机经冲刺版【托福全球网TOFEL CPU快速提高2060分】TOFEL Prediction --20196789月托福IBT真题预测听说读写答案冲刺版【托福TOFEL CPU快速提高分数20-60分,超高命中率,托福备考核心资料VIP】每场必中大部分考试内容,一次性攻破托福VIP资料,托福考官专家真题预测TOFELCPUTOFEL 2019
【托福真题预测答案】201961,615,616,629,76,77,713,89月托福IBT真题预测答案范文机经精准冲刺版Toefl in ChinaToefl Killer,Pass Toefl Higher快速提高2060--20196789月托福听力、口语、阅读、写作真题预测题目完整答案范文解析-快速提高分数20-60分【Toefl Killer,PassToefl Higher快速提高2060分,超高命中率】一次性攻破托福VIP资料,托福考官专家真题预测CPUTOFEL2019请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-243457-1-1.html


2019年5月4日托福听说读写真题答案回忆蹲点汇总+解析
回忆1:
综合写作
入侵海星以及怎么防治。
阅读:
(1)用毒药只杀死海星。
(2)用寄生虫。
(3)在海水中加化学物质(海星会被船的管道泵入而传播到其他地方)。
听力内容反驳了阅读部分
(1)化学物质会杀死本地海星。
(2)寄生虫对雄海星无效。
(3)有多种方法供海星传播。

独立写作
(2013-06-14NA 托福独立写作原题)
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important goal of education is to teach people how to educate themselves.
回忆2:
口语部分
Task 1
你选择什么样的期末考试,三选一:
1. research paper;
2. oral exam;
3. paper examination。
Task2
$5000奖学金应该给students with high academic performance还是syudents need financial aids?
Task3
学生建议学校请学生teach students in exercise classes such as yoga...
1、学生可以赚extra money
2、improve class attendance rate因为有更多同学选修朋友教的课
听力Rebut :
1、学生要花很多钱get certified
2、学生经验太少,如果教的不好同学会觉得是浪费时间,就不选这些课了
Task4
signature call
一些动物个体天生就会使用一些技能与同伴交流,教授用dolphin举例,海豚妈妈在照看小海豚时,如果小海豚走远了或者妈妈去找食物,就用whistle来寻找孩子,同时它的孩子也会回应妈妈,妈妈学会了孩子的whistle不断接近孩子,最终找到孩子。
Task5
大一学生需要写一篇英语课的paper,两个选择。
1、在学校写,但是她从开学以后就没回家,她父母想她了;
2、带书回家写,但她有年幼的弟弟妹妹,可能会打扰她。
Task6
presentation pricing是指商家定价较低以吸引消费者,有两个不利因素
1、定价较低让消费者觉得商品是赶工的或者质量不好,用vacuum cleaner举例,他们觉得便宜的吸尘器吸不到dust;
2、如果商品一开始定价较低,消费者使用感又很好,随着销路变好,商品一涨价就会遭到抱怨,用shampoo举例。
回忆3:
听力部分
Conversation
1、野餐东西损坏,找管理员反映情况,询问保修进度;
2、 一个大学club;
3、自己的社团想要在学生中心展示,问申请流程;
4、讨论论文下一篇的主题。学生写了一个drama的大作业,想下一次继续研究,老师鼓励他选别的poem写,这节课不需要深入讨论,他如果有兴趣可以去选别的关于这个的课。

Lecture
1、艺术史,日本人画wood curving picture, 传到法国,法国有个人画石板画很厉害,他很喜欢日本的木头画,模仿那种风格。(屏幕上显示了一幅画),风格大概就是不对称,颜色比较plain。
2、植物学;
3、人类学两种文化;
4、日本雕刻;
5、讲一个美术家的绘画风格;
6、hiphop的起源;
7、大多数动物在逃跑的时候都会悄悄地走,但是有些lizard喜欢弄出很多noise,学生问是不是因为那些在dry leaves。
8、[Music Appreciation] 音乐不仅会引起大脑中一种皮层的活跃,vision cortex也会被刺激 很久以前就有乐器了,有一种flute在德国被发现,音乐对ancient people的作用:connect people,celebration of a successful hunting。
回忆4:
阅读部分
1、Agriculture in Colonial New England
2、Cave Art in Europe
3、The Roman Army's Impact on Britain
4、森林植被。森林中上面的canopy总是比下面的晚伸展开叶子。先讲了植物靠非生物因素决定什么时候伸展叶子:气温(可能通过日照来判断气温)还有生物因素。canopy晚伸展的原因:冷、霜、酶的温度不是最优、风传粉时机,也有别的canopy甚至夏季才伸展叶子。
5、鹿角的用途,Antlers in Deer and Other Cervids。鹿角是用来做什么的,有5个假说,前四个都被否定了,包括为了散热、对抗predator、吸引异性mating还有象征地位,第五个假说比较可信,是因为polygamous的mate-mate combat才进化出来的。
6、恐龙是恒温动物还是冷血动物。恐龙大部分都是后腿比前腿有力且长,除了一个叫bra的恐龙。大部分都能做到用尾巴作为第三条腿,除了bra,因为bra想这样的话需要有很大的心脏供血,否则就会晕倒。然后讲了恐龙的中空的身体结构,可以直接吸收氧气然后从肺部呼出,不用先吸氧到肺再呼出,和鸟类似。
7、蚂蚁社群。蚂蚁内部的分工使得一部分蚂蚁寿命短,一部分负责延续后代的寿命长。一些蚂蚁负责找食物,一些负责守卫colony。一些蚂蚁会在一些树附近组成一个栖息地,虽然他们在昆虫里是minority,但是还是很有主导地位的。
8、早期移民种植
9、家里通电之后的一些变化,Electric Lightening and the American Home。电引起的改变,包括房屋装修风格变化,人们的阅读时间增加。重复2017年1月7日和2017年5月20日阅读原题。
10、Surviving in the Desert
11、The Advantages of Eusociality in Animals
12、Consolidated Industry in the United States,重复2015年10月31日阅读原题;
13、reindeer 反映气候变化;
14、蜜蜂传粉。蜜蜂其实不是最优的传粉媒介:气候不好不出门,口器不够长,不能进行buzz传粉方式,另一种蜜蜂传粉更有效,但农民并没有及时意识到。
15、公司并购。垂直并购与水平并购,以洛克菲勒为例,从pool arrangement到trust,然后新泽西通过了某个法案,结果能光明正大的并购了。
回忆5:
阅读部分
1.绿色革命。
2.蚂蚁社群。
3.森林植被。
4.家里通电之后的一些变化。
5.鹿角的用途。
6.生物大灭绝。
7.早期移民种植。
8.reindeer 反映气候变化。
9.恐龙是恒温还是变温动物。
回忆6:
综合写作:入侵海星以及怎么防治。
阅读:
(1)用毒药只杀死海星。
(2)用寄生虫。
(3)在海水中加化学物质(海星会被船的管道泵入而传播到其他地方)。
听力:
听力内容反驳了阅读部分
(1)化学物质会杀死本地海星。
(2)寄生虫对雄海星无效。
(3)有多种方法供海星传播。

独立写作(2013-06-14NA 托福独立写作原题)
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important goal of education is to teach people how to educate themselves.
参考思路:
观点:观点不同意教育最重要的目标是教会人们如何自我教育。
理由段一:义务教育阶段最重要的是给学生树立正确的三观以及在社会生存的基本技能。
理由段二:高等教育阶段最重要的是给学生教授专业技能,培养专业型的高等人才。
让步段:尽管教会人们如何自我教育也是教育的重要目的,但是不同的人生阶段,教育的目的都不同,说教育最重要的目标是教会人们如何自我教育未免太过武断。
回忆7:
口 语 部 分
TASK 1
选择什么形式的期末测试?
1.research paper
2.oral presentation
3.written examination
TASK 2
奖学金应该提供给 students with high academic performance 还是 students who need financial aids?
TASK 3
学校体育馆是否让学生做老师。阅读说可以,听力反对说没有资质,因为需要很多课来挣回学习获得资质的课程的收入,以及教多了如果被嫌弃课就会开放得少。
TASK 4
动物发出的声音,举了海豚的例子,来说母亲找儿子的时候会用特殊声音相互传递。
TASK 5
论文没写完,马上放假,要回家写还是在学校里写。
回忆8:
听 力 部 分
Lecture
1.一个美术家的绘画风格。
2.Hip-hop 的起源。
3.日本人画 wood curving picture, 传到法国,法国有个人画石板画很厉害,他很喜欢日本的木头画,模仿那种风格。风格大概就是不对称,颜色比较 plain。
4.天文-comet。
5.大多数动物在逃跑的时候都会悄悄地走,但是有些 lizard 喜欢弄出很多 noise,学生问是不是因为那些在 dry leaves。

Conversation
1. 东西坏了找管理员反映,问报修进度。
2. 自己的社团想要在学生中心展示,问申请流程。
3. 讨论论文下一篇的主题。
回忆9:
Listening
补充哦~~~笔芯!
Conversation
1. 野餐东西损坏;
2. 一个大学club;
3. 东西坏了找管理员反应,问保修进度;
4. 自己的社团想要在学生中心展示,问申请流程;
5. 讨论论文下一篇的主题。

Lecture
1. 艺术史,日本人画wood curving picture, 传到法国,法国有个人画石板画很厉害,他很喜欢日本的木头画,模仿那种风格。(屏幕上显示了一幅画),风格大概就是不对称,颜色比较plain。
2. 植物学;
3. 人类学两种文化;
4. 日本雕刻;
5. 讲一个美术家的绘画风格;
6. hiphop的起源;
7. 大多数动物在逃跑的时候都会悄悄地走,但是有些lizard喜欢弄出很多noise,学生问是不是因为那些在dry leaves。
8.  [Music Appreciation] 音乐不仅会引起大脑中一种皮层的活跃,vision cortex也会被刺激 很久以前就有乐器了,有一种flute在德国被发现,音乐对ancient people的作用:connect people,celebration of a successful hunting
回忆10:
阅读
01.Sociality in Animals
动物中的社交
2017.12.17,2017.09.24,2017.09.23下午场,2015.04.18,2014.07.06
群居是无脊椎动物进化的伟大壮举之一,但只有很少的群居动物具备社会性,有脊椎动物也是一样。社会性有一定的好处,比如抵抗外敌,建设栖息地,为生存带来便利等。与此同时也意味着群体要付出一定的代价,其中最明显的就是同一栖息地内部同物种之间的竞争,但是更大的回报在于狩猎与防御时的合作性。
devastate = destroy破坏
simultaneously= at the same time 同时
unintentional= unplanned 非蓄谋的
alternate = take turns at替换
真题原文
Sociality in Animals

Social insects represent the high point of invertebrate evolution. Some species live in communities of millions, coordinating their building and foraging, their reproduction, and their offspring care. Yet sociality is found in only a few species of insects, and is rare among vertebrates as well: wildebeest (large antelope) and lions are the exception rather than the rule. Nearly all fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals are solitary, except when courting and mating. Birds and mammals usually rear their young, but year-round family groups are almost unknown, though they are intensely studied where they do exist. The same is true for insects.

We know, or think we know, that social groups are good. Wolves are better predators when they hunt in packs, and pigeons escape from falcons far more often when feeding in flocks. Group building projects—the dams beavers build to block a body of water that provides them with relative safety from predators and the lodges they build for shelter, for instance—can provide a high level of protection and comfort. Why, then, are social species so very rare? In fact, living socially presents inevitable problems that transcend habitat needs so that only when these costs are offset by corresponding benefits is group living a plus.

The most obvious cost is competition. All the members of a species share the same habitat; when they live together, they are trying to eat the same food and occupy the same nesting sites. In general, there is far less competition away from a group, and selection should favor any individual who (all things being equal) sets off on its own, leaving the members of its group behind to compete among themselves for limited resources. Another difficulty is that concentrations of individuals facilitate disease and parasite transmission. On the whole, social animals carry more parasites and species-specific diseases than do solitary animals. Parasites and diseases diminish the strength and limit the growth of animals, and among highly social creatures, epidemics can devastate whole populations. Distemper (a viral disease) has been known to wipe out entire colonies of seals, for instance. So the penalty of social life is potentially huge.

But in some instances, the payoffs can be even greater. Two have already been mentioned: cooperative hunting and defensive groups. Social hunting is likely to evolve where prey is too large to be taken by individuals operating alone. To capture wildebeest some members of a group of lions follow their prey and herd them toward others lying in ambush. In other species, individuals forage or hunt simultaneously and share the food. Vampire bats that have had a bad day, for instance, are fed by more successful members of the community, but they are expected to return the favor in the future. Cooperation can even involve sharing information about the location of food. Some colonial birds, such as bank swallows, use the departure direction of a successful forager (food hunter) to locate concentrations of prey. Information transfer can be unintentional though some species make use of special assembly calls or behavior.

Cooperation in group defense, such as we see in circles of musk oxen or elephants, is quite rare among vertebrates but is prevalent among the social insects. The strategy of employing many eyes to watch for danger, on the other hand, is widespread in birds and mammals. A herd of gazelles (small antelope) is far more likely to spot a lurking lion or a concealed cheetah than is a lone individual, and at a greater distance. In fact, a group enters into a kind of time-sharing arrangement in which individual antelope alternate biting off a mouthful of grass with a period of erect and watchful chewing. A larger group can afford more bites per individual per minute, there being more eyes to scan for danger. For a small antelope living in a forest where visibility is limited, however, remaining hidden is probably a better bet than assembling into noisy herds.

Among the millions of species of insects, only a few thousand are social. Those rarities are generally confined to termites and Hymenoptera. All termites are social: their diet (cellulose) requires that each generation feed a special kind of bacteria or fungi to the next generation to aid in its digestion. Of the numerous hymenopterans, some are social—including all ants and a few bees and wasps—but many are solitary.

02.仙人掌如何适应炎热
一些仙人掌(cactus/cacti)为了适应干旱进化出一些特征,比如不长叶子,白天闭合一些部位防止evaporation,晚上储存二氧化碳当做白天光合作用的fuel,还有stem变得succulent等。本文讲了一种特殊的仙人掌,有刺也有叶子。仙人掌通过抑制树皮组织使它的根能一直生长并进行光合作用,树皮组织一般都长在比较低比较老的根部。仙人掌会有能够关闭的孔来防止水分散失,并且在晚上吸收二氧化碳,早上释放氧气。仙人掌具有弹性的脊,所以吸收水分能够通过变化形状来适应环境。

03.Agriculture in Colonial New England
殖民地时期新英格兰地区的农业
2016.08.21,2017.09.16
面临的困难:一是土地多瓦砾岩石较为贫瘠;二是生长季较短,农耕时间不足,并且耕作方式不同于原本在英国农村的开垦完好的松软土地;三是犁具不足,且能用的犁具是较轻的木制犁具,无法深耕土地。

殖民者采取的适应性:新英格兰的欧洲殖民者向印第安人学会了耕种玉米,玉米的优势在于方便照料,耗时短,且各个部分可以被利用,如茎秆可以做牲口冬天的饲料,其他部分可以填充床垫和制作各种工具等;殖民者对工具进行了改造,英国沉重的斧头被改短,结构也更加紧凑,手柄更适合使用者,大大提高了伐木效率;传统的手持镰刀被改为长柄大镰刀,可以一边切割一边收集作物茎秆,将生产效率提高了四倍;英国的主食作物如小麦,黑麦和燕麦在新英格兰地区生长的很差,所以殖民者被迫尝试耕种本土印第安人的各种作物,如玉米、豆子、南瓜等,产量是英国作物的3-4倍。

仍存在的局限:新英格兰的贫瘠土地,无法供养大规模的传统农业;东西水路系统的缺失也限制了该地区农业的成功,这里的河流较浅且充满激流,船只无法像南部种植园地区一样地驶入农场,因此新英格兰农民生产出的粮食虽然超出了自给自足,但无法进入市场销售,只能在当地交换所需的商品。
stimulated = encouraged 刺激,驱动
indispensable = essential 不可或缺的
conventional = traditional 传统的
【殖民地农业】话题重复
Farming New England in Colonial Times 殖民地时期新英格兰农耕
2019.04.13,2015.08.30,2016.03.13

04.Reindeer and the Climate Change
驯鹿(迁徙)与气候
一种生活在低温环境中的鹿随温度而迁徙。
【Reindeer】话题重复
Waking Up:Coming Out of Hibernation, E Reindeer
2018.06.10

05.Pleistocene Extinctions
更新世的物种灭绝
2018.09.02,2017.05.27,2016.02.27,2015.09.12
讲的是大型动物的灭绝。第一题问哪的动物灭绝率高,然后有两个可能的因素。第一点说可能是因为气候的变化,但是有反驳提问说有的动物能迁徙到合适的栖息地,为什么有的动物确并没有走?此处举例说明。第二点说可能是人类的捕杀,但是有证据表明当时人口比较少且居住分散,而且大多证据都是小型动物没有大型动物,举了澳大利亚的例子。最后一段进行总结,认为可能以上两种因素都有,综合考虑也许是共同作用的结果。
sparser = more thinly distributed 稀疏的
episodes = occurrence 发生
proponents = supporters 支持者
swift = quick 快速的
考句解析
文中反复用到这个表达“after all”,翻译成中文叫做“毕竟”,但考生不能只停留在这样一个表层意思,“after all”的真正含义是用来引出原因解释。下面例句中很多学者质疑“气候变化导致更新世的大型哺乳动物灭绝假说”,认为即使气候变化,动物也可以迁徙逃跑,然后补上一刀after all…,就是用来解释学者们这种想法的原因。

First, why did the large mammals not migrate to more suitable habitatsas the climate and vegetation changed? After all,many other animal species did.
真题原文
Pleistocene Extinctions
   
At the end of the Pleistocene (roughly 11,500 years ago), many large mammals became extinct. Large mammals in the Americas and Australia were particularly hard-hit. In Australia, 15 of the continent's 16 of large mammals died out; North America lost 33 of 45 genera of large mammals, and in South America 46 of 58 such genera went extinct. In contrast, Europe lost only 7 of 23 such genera, and in Africa south of the Sahara only 2 of 44 died out. What caused these extinctions  Why did these extinctions eliminate mostly large mammals Why were the extinctions most severe in Australia and the Americas No completely satisfactory explanation exists, but two competing hypotheses are currently being debated. One holds that rapid climatic changes at the end of the Pleistocene caused extinctions, whereas another, called prehistoric overkill, holds that human hunters were responsible.

Rapid changes in climate and vegetation occurred over much of Earth's surface during the late Pleistocene, as glaciers began retreating. The North American and northern Eurasian open steppe tundras (treeless and permanently frozen land areas) were replaced by conifer and broadleaf forests as warmer and wetter conditions prevailed. The Arctic region changed from a productive herbaceous one that supported a variety of large mammals, to a relatively barren waterlogged tundra that supported a far sparser fauna. The southwestern United States region also changed from a moist area with numerous lakes, where saber-tooth cats, giant ground sloths, and mammoths roamed, to a semiarid environment unable to support a diverse fauna of large mammals.

Rapid changes in climate and vegetation can certainly affect animal populations, but the climate hypothesis presents several problems. First, why did the large mammals not migrate to more suitable habitats as the climate and vegetation changed After all, many other animal species did. For example, reindeer and the arctic fox lived in southern France during the last glaciation and migrated to the Arctic when the climate became warmer.
The second argument against the climatic hypothesis is the apparent lack of correlation between extinctions and the earlier glacial advances and retreats throughout the Pleistocene Epoch. Previous changes in climate were not marked by episodes of mass extinctions.

Proponents of the prehistoric overkill hypothesis argue that the mass extinctions in North and South America and Australia coincided closely with the arrival of humans. Perhaps hunters had a tremendous impact on the faunas of North and South America about 11,000 years ago because the animals had no previous experience with humans. The same thing happened much earlier in Australia soon after people arrived about 40,000 years ago. No large-scale extinctions occurred in Africa and most of Europe because animals in those regions had long been familiar with humans.

One problem with the prehistoric overkill hypothesis is that archaeological evidence indicates the early human inhabitants of North and South America, as well as Australia, probably lived in small, scattered communities, gathering food and hunting. How could a few hunters destroy so many species of large mammals However, it is true that humans have caused major extinctions on oceanic islands. For example, in a period of about 600 years after arriving in New Zealand, humans exterminated several species of the large, flightless birds called moas. A second problem is that present-day hunters concentrate on smaller, abundant, and less dangerous animals. The remains of horses, reindeer, and other small animals are found in many prehistoric sites in Europe, whereas mammoth and woolly rhinoceros remains are scarce. Finally, few human artifacts are found among the remains of extinct animals in North and South America, and there is usually little evidence that the animals were hunted. Countering this argument is the assertion that the impact on the previously unhunted fauna was so swift as to leave little evidence.

The reason for the extinctions of large Pleistocene mammals is still unresolved and probably will be for some time. It may turn out that the extinctions resulted from a combination of different circumstances. Populations that were already under stress from climate changes were perhaps more vulnerable to hunting, especially if smaller females and young animals were the preferred targets.

06.鹿角的作用
鹿角是用来做什么的,有5个假说,前四个都被否定了,包括为了散热、对抗predator、吸引异性mating还有象征地位,第五个假说比较可信,是因为polygamous的mate-mate combat才进化出来的。

07.Electric Lighting and American Homes
美国电力的发展对房屋设计与居民生活的影响
2018.05.19,2018.01.27,2017.05.20,2017.01.07
家庭用电的使用大大改变了美国人的居家生活,并且随着电价的下降,家庭用电从少数富有家庭进入普通家庭。

家庭用电大大改变了美国房屋设计。原有的美国住宅是维多利亚式(1830-1900),即采用煤气点灯照明,不安全,而且会产生煤烟(soot),弄脏室内家具地毯,因此为了安全考虑维多利亚式房屋进行多个房间的分隔阻滞空气流动,而且室内装饰多以深色为主来掩饰煤油灯落下的煤烟。

电灯照明所带来的美国房屋变革,通过电线将多个房间连通,唯有的隔离空间是卧室和厕所;不再受煤烟污染,因此可以自由选择浅色系的明亮家具和地毯。

但是,电线和管道的引入提高了房屋建造成本,为了降低建房成本,20世纪初的房屋做了很多简化和房间合并,例如省去了维多利亚老式住房的传统前厅(front parlors),并且撤销了很多单独性功能房间,如书房、储物房、缝纫间等。

这其中最广泛流传的新式住房版本是源自加州的单层平房Bungalow,它只有一层,小而简单,高效有用,装修极简,从1900到1930在城市中得到大量建造。

电灯照明的新式住房也推动了家庭阅读的增长,电灯取代煤油灯使得更多的人能够安全、方便地阅读,于是公共图书馆的人均借阅量在1925年比1890年翻了8倍。
properties = characteristics 特点
substantially = significantly 极大地
allegedly = supposedly 据说
apparent = obvious 明显的

08.Consolidated Industry in the United States
美国产业的兼并
2019.01.13,2018.09.15,2017.08.27,2015.10.31
一开始讲美国俄亥俄州有一个叫标准石油(Standard Oil)的大型公司。大型公司治理的新技术就是设置中层管理。接下来讲企业合并,一共有两种,一种是纵向合并,一种横向合并。纵向合并是指同一个产业的上下游企业的合并,比如石油大亨洛克菲洛,把石油开发上下游的行业(开发、提炼、运输、储存和销售)全部合并起来,健全了行业的产业链。横向合并就是把所有同行业的竞争对手的都统统吃掉。

企业家们认为过分竞争不利于赚钱,所以决定签署一些条约来形成一个垄断组织(托拉斯)来划分市场。但是这个协议要求所有企业都要参与进来,所以很快这个协议就崩溃了。后来大家决定用信托(trust)的方式来管理企业,让一个受托人/托管人(trustee)控股,然后管理所有公司。最后说是股权交易制度的完善能够吸引众多的投资者,举了新泽西的例子,标准石油(Standard Oil)首先获益。
launched = started 开始
methodically = systematically 系统性地
accelerated = speeded up 加速
perfected = improved 提高

09.A Debate about Dinosaurs
关于恐龙的讨论
2018.12.08,2017.11.18
恐龙是恒温还是变温动物。恐龙大部分都是后腿比前腿有力且长,除了一个叫B的恐龙。大部分都能做到用尾巴作为第三条腿,除了B,因为B想这样的话需要有很大的心脏供血,否则就会晕倒。然后讲了恐龙的中空的身体结构,可以直接吸收氧气然后从肺部呼出,不用先吸氧到肺再呼出,和鸟类似。

10.蜜蜂传粉优劣
蜜蜂其实不是最优的传粉媒介:气候不好不出门,口器不够长,不能进行buzz传粉方式另一种蜜蜂传粉更有效,但农民并没有及时意识到。

11.罗马军队对英国的影响

12.Cave and Rock Art
洞穴与岩石艺术
2017.07.08,2016.09.11
主要讲述岩洞/岩石艺术的主题内容(subject matter):刻画史前大型狩猎动物,很少画人;岩石艺术的制作方法:一般都是雕刻在岩石表面,后来出现上色;所使用的材料:最初只有铁氧化石的红色颜料,和偶尔的黑白棕黄色,但艺术家创造性地发明了杵和臼(pestles and mortars)等研磨工具将不同材料混合产生出多种不同的色彩。
rudimentary = elementary 基本的
akin to = similar to 与...相似
occasionally = sometimes 有时
ingenuity = inventiveness 独创性
【洞穴艺术】话题重复
Cave Artists  洞穴艺术家
2019.01.26
【壁画】话题重复
Murals, Frescoes, and Easel Paintings 壁画,湿画和支架画
2018.03.10,2018.10.28
The Sistine Ceiling 西斯廷壁顶绘画
2019.03.16,2017.12.02,2016.12.11

13.Green Revolution
绿色革命
话题拓展
The term Green Revolution refers to the renovation of agricultural practices beginning in Mexico in the 1940s. Because of its success in producing more agricultural products there, Green Revolution technologies spread worldwide in the 1950s and 1960s, significantly increasing the amount of calories produced per acre of agriculture.

History and Development of the Green Revolution
The beginnings of the Green Revolution are often attributed to Norman Borlaug, an American scientist interested in agriculture. In the 1940s, he began conducting research in Mexico and developed new disease resistance high-yield varieties of wheat. By combining Borlaug's wheat varieties with new mechanized agricultural technologies, Mexico was able to produce more wheat than was needed by its own citizens, leading to its becoming an exporter of wheat by the 1960s. Prior to the use of these varieties, the country was importing almost half of its wheat supply.
Due to the success of the Green Revolution in Mexico, its technologies spread worldwide in the 1950s and 1960s. The United States for instance, imported about half of its wheat in the 1940s but after using Green Revolution technologies, it became self-sufficient in the 1950s and became an exporter by the 1960s.

In order to continue using Green Revolution technologies to produce more food for a growing population worldwide, the Rockefeller Foundation(洛克菲勒基金会) and the Ford Foundation(福特基金会,均为私人慈善机构), as well as many government agencies around the world funded increased research. In 1963 with the help of this funding, Mexico formed an international research institution called The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center(国际玉米小麦改良中心).

Plant Technologies of the Green Revolution
The crops developed during the Green Revolution were high yield varieties - meaning they were domesticated plants bred specifically to respond to fertilizers and produce an increased amount of grain per acre planted.

The terms often used with these plants that make them successful are harvest index, photosynthate allocation, and insensitivity to day length. The harvest index refers to the above ground weight of the plant. During the Green Revolution, plants that had the largest seeds were selected to create the most production possible. After selectively breeding these plants, they evolved to all have the characteristic of larger seeds. These larger seeds then created more grain yield and a heavier above ground weight.

This larger above ground weight then led to an increased photosynthate allocation. By maximizing the seed or food portion of the plant, it was able to use photosynthesismore efficiently because the energy produced during this process went directly to the food portion of the plant.

Finally, by selectively breeding plants that were not sensitive to day length, researchers like Borlaug were able to double a crop’s production because the plants were not limited to certain areas of the globe based solely on the amount of light available to them.

Impacts of the Green Revolution
Since fertilizers are largely what made the Green Revolution possible, they forever changed agricultural practices because the high yield varieties developed during this time cannot grow successfully without the help of fertilizers.

Irrigation also played a large role in the Green Revolution and this forever changed the areas where various crops can be grown. For instance before the Green Revolution, agriculture was severely limited to areas with a significant amount of rainfall, but by using irrigation, water can be stored and sent to drier areas, putting more land into agricultural production.

In addition, the development of high yield varieties meant that only a few species of say, rice started being grown. By having increased crop homogeneity though the types were more prone to disease and pests because there were not enough varieties to fight them off. In order to protect these few varieties then, pesticide use grew as well.

Finally, the use of Green Revolution technologies exponentially increased the amount of food production worldwide. Places like India and China that once feared famine have not experienced it since implementing the use of IR8 rice and other food varieties.

Criticism of the Green Revolution
Along with the benefits gained from the Green Revolution, there have been several criticisms. The first is that the increased amount of food production has led to overpopulation worldwide.

The second major criticism is that places like Africa have not significantly benefited from the Green Revolution. The major problems surrounding the use of these technologies here though are a lack of infrastructure, governmental corruption, and insecurity in nations.

Despite these criticisms though, the Green Revolution has forever changed the way agriculture is conducted worldwide, benefiting the people of many nations in need of increased food production.

14.森林植被的适应性
森林中上面的canopy总是比下面的晚伸展开叶子。先讲了植物靠非生物因素决定什么时候伸展叶子:气温(可能通过日照来判断气温)还有生物因素。canopy晚伸展的原因:冷、霜、酶的温度不是最优、风传粉时机,也有别的canopy甚至夏季才伸展叶子。

15.蚂蚁社群
蚂蚁内部的分工使得一部分蚂蚁寿命短,一部分负责延续后代的寿命长。一些蚂蚁负责找食物,一些负责守卫colony。一些蚂蚁会在一些树附近组成一个栖息地,虽然他们在昆虫里是minority,但是还是很有主导地位的。
回忆11:
写 作
小作文
Integrated Writing
Reading
控制海星数量的方法
1.杀海星的化学药剂quicklime
2.introduce their parasites
3.在海水中加化学物质,通过船的ballast water 运输到别的地方
Listening
这三个方法都问题
1.化学药剂会影响native sea stars,就算去海底了也能杀死它们,毁了native ecosystem;
2.parasites对male sea stars是没用的,还是会让部分sea stars fertilize, population 还是会增加;
3.ballast water不是唯一的传播方式from one place to another,还行可以通过依附在一些小船的equipment上传播到其他地方,不管这个船有没有ballast water。

大作文
Independent Writing
The most important goal of education is to teach people how to educate themselves.
立场:教会人们如何教育自己如何学习是最重要教育目的。
理由:
1.效率
教会人们如何教育自己如何学习—让人们在碰到新的知识的时候知道应该做什么—不会耽误时间—能够迅速解决问题并且熟练掌握相关知识;
2.素质
教会人们如何教育自己如何学习—不需要寻求别人的帮助—人们会逐渐习惯自己去面对挑战—形成良好的学习习惯—成为高素质人才
3.兴趣
教会人们如何教育自己如何学习—自己去钻研技术和知识—补充对各个领域的了解—完整的知识体系会激发起他们学习兴趣
回忆12:
口 语
Task 1
三种考试形式,选哪一个:1. Research paper; 2. Oral exam;3. Written eam
解析:这个题真的太常规了,又是学习类话题,素材还是可以信手拈来的。主题:researchpaper;原因:可以学到更多知识;举例:曾经做过的一个历史项目,在写论文期间,看了非常多资料,学习到了很多书本上没有的知识(记得在答题过程中多应用并列的具体段例子,丰富词汇)
Task 2
学校的奖学金应该给学习成绩好的同学,还是经济上需要帮助的同学
Task 2 demo
Task 3
阅读:学校体育馆让学生来做老师
听力:不同意;原因1: 学生没有资质,要去培训来取得资质,他们要上很多课才能把培训费赚回来;原因2:如果教的不好,被嫌弃,开课就会变少
Task 4
讲了动物发出的特殊声音,比如海豚,母亲找儿子的时候会发出特殊的声音
Task 5
问题:大一学生,英语课需要写一篇论文,没写完,马上就要放假了,该怎么办
方案1:在学校写;缺点:她从开学后就没回家过,父母很想她
方案2:带书回家写;缺点:她有年幼的弟弟妹妹,可能会打扰她
Task 6
Penetration pricing:商家定价较低以吸引消费者。有两个坏处:1. 定价低让消费者觉得商品质量不好,举例:消费者觉得便宜的吸尘器吸不到灰尘,或者是坏的;2. 如果商品一开始定价低,消费者觉得使用感好,商品销量高,那么商品一旦涨价,消费者就会抱怨
回忆13:
听 力
对话
学术类:
C1:一个学生想做生物燃料biofuel的再利用研究,他想要做甘油材料G,打算用甘油做一个薄膜层,然后覆盖在草的种子上面,这样可以提高种子存活率。教授觉得这个方法太ambitous,难度太大。但是学生希望教授给他提供资源来做independent project。
C2:学生来问自己的文学论文能否继续拓展之前写过的主题。
生活类:
C3:学生的社团想要在学生中心展示,问申请流程。
C4:学生的东西坏了找管理员反应,问保修进度。
C5:学生反馈说寝室heater关不掉导致太热,还在网上反馈问题。
C6:学生出去野餐,损坏了东西,想知道怎么补偿。
讲座
Art History:日本人画wood curving picture, 传到法国。法国有画石板画很厉害的画家,他很喜欢日本的木头画,模仿那种风格。风格大概就是不对称,颜色比较plain。
Music Appreciation:教授介绍音乐不仅会引起大脑中一种皮层的活跃,vision cortex也会被刺激。
Music History:很久以前就有乐器了,有一种长笛在德国被发现。
Music:音乐对古代人的作用是可以帮助互相沟通connect people,还可以庆祝狩猎成功celebration of a successful hunting。
Biology:大多数动物在逃跑的时候都会悄悄地走,但是有些lizard喜欢弄出很多noise。学生问是不是因为它们主要在那些在上escape,所以弄出很多声响?教授否决了,说他们其实也可以很安静的。然后教授就开始解释lizard make noise的原因。有说到那些noisy的lizard更容易make a successful escape。后来又说when lizards are hiding from the predators, some of them also tend to make some noise,然后就说他们这么干的目的,可能是为了告诉predator: I’m aware of you, you are not gonna catch me.
Geology:教授介绍了一种地理现象。以前的人以为这种地理现象的成因是wind把snow刮上去了,但是现在有些部分被remove了。pollutant可以缓解global warming对冰川的融化,但是不知道多少量的pollutant可以,所以要cautious。
Literature:教授介绍一个诗人ww,分析他的content和structure。
Archaelogy:教授介绍在某个流域有两个群落H和Akkra,他们的关系可能不是先后,而是互相影响。
回忆14:
阅读
Mature reddeer stag, Denmark
Agriculture in Colonial New England殖民地时期,新英格兰地区的农业发展。当地农业发展有困难,比如土地贫瘠,生长季短,耕种的工具不适合当地等。当地农民学习印第安人,耕种玉米,充分利用玉米比如用玉米的秸秆做饲料。改进耕种工具,提高生产效率。局限性:无法进行大规模传统农业;水路运输缺失。
强大的群体生活昆虫,举例蚂蚁,分工明确各司其职。
鹿角的作用,5种说法,分别是散热、对抗predator捕食者、吸引异性mating交配、地位的象征,其中前四个不太靠谱,第五个比较可信,是因为mate-mate combat雄性之间的竞争。
电力引起的改变,包括房屋装修风格变化,人们阅读时间增加
森林植被,气温或生物会影响树叶伸展。canopy 部分的树叶晚伸展的原因:寒冷,霜冻、酶、风传粉时机。
恐龙是恒温动物endotherm还是变温动物poikilotherm
cacti仙人掌为了适应干旱而进化出的特点,比如针状的外形,减少evaporation,还有stem变得succulent
蜜蜂传播花粉。蜜蜂并不是最优的传粉媒介,因为受天气影响,口器不够长等。但也有一种蜜蜂传粉很有效,农民并没有及时意识到。
垂直并购与水平并购,举例洛克菲勒,trust垄断组织如何形成的。
Myrmecocystus, honeypotants, store food to prevent colony famine

背景知识
并购Mergersand acquisitions (M&A)
Mergers andacquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownershipof companies, other business organizations, or their operating units aretransferred or consolidated with other entities. As an aspect of strategicmanagement, M&A can allow enterprises to grow or downsize, and change thenature of their business or competitive position.

From a legal point of view, amerger is a legal consolidation of two entities into one entity, whereas anacquisition occurs when one entity takes ownership of another entity's stock, equityinterests or assets. From a commercial and economic point of view,both types of transactions generally result in the consolidation ofassets and liabilities under one entity, and the distinction between a"merger" and an "acquisition" is less clear. A transactionlegally structured as an acquisition may have the effect of placing one party'sbusiness under the indirect ownership of the other party's shareholders, whilea transaction legally structured as a merger may give each party's shareholderspartial ownership and control of the combined enterprise. A deal maybe euphemistically called a merger of equals ifboth CEOs agree that joining together is in the best interest of bothof their companies, while when the deal is unfriendly (that is, when themanagement of the target company opposes the deal) it may be regarded as an"acquisition".


词汇题:
devastate
peak
circumstantial
alternate
abnormal
subsequently
plausible
回忆15:



2019年4月13日托福考试总体反馈-2019年4月13日托福命中ABCDE卷多篇阅读真题原题(大量阅读旧题),命中独立和综合大作文真题原题(都是旧题),命中听力、口语各四到五部分,听力仍然较难,CPU资料阅读、写作、听力、口语等全面大中,全面开花!4月13日的托福考试,依然是几套试卷组合,这种模式会一直持续下去。今年托福考试几大特点:(1)听力、口语、写作、阅读老题重复量巨大。(3)在大部分考试中,写作听力一直是四项难度最大,并且对话难度超过讲座)(4)阅读、独立和综合写作重复老题,是我们TOEFL CPU资料里面的。4月13日托福考试大部分题目都在我们CPU资料原题命中!祝贺CPU会员将出现不少100-110分以上托福天才!本次考试听力阅读里大多是老题,仍然大量重复2015-2018年的老题,尤其是我们CPU托福资料的真题。今天口语和写作也是老题居多。ETS今年虽然在考试形式上变化很多,但其实使用的新题非常少,大都是在重复2014-2018年大陆考过的新题。这一方面说明,ETS出题成本太高(80万美金一套),所以出题量小。另一方面说明,托福考试的整体趋势还是稳定的。形式上的变化(多套试卷,阅读加试,听力非经典加试),并不能改变这个考试的内在。今天听力,口语,阅读和写作都重复老题。总体反馈请复制链接进入

特别提醒:托福考试几十多年来,有非常严格的规律性和出题思路。全世界有6到10个托福大考区,而只有一个美国托福考试中心几个人在出题,每个考区每个月要出2-4份考卷,一个月出12-24份考卷,考官如何保证达到难度一样呢,如何保证新题难度、准确度和评价机制公平呢,所以只能是几十年来托福真题题库旧题目的有效组合,新题不能超出10%。事实上每份托福真题卷子都是80%-90%以上旧题原题真题。近年来,阅读几套卷里大多是老题,ETS今年虽然在考试形式上变化很多,但其实使用的新题非常少,大都是在重复2014-2018年大陆考过的老题。这一方面说明,ETS出题成本太高(80万美金一套),所以出新题量小。另一方面说明,托福考试的整体趋势还是稳定的。形式上的变化(多套试卷,阅读加试,听力非经典加试),并不能改变这个考试的内在。除了阅读之外,听力,口语和写作都大部分是重复老题。多年托福考官和专家Edward老师非常熟悉托福出题规律和听说读写题库出题组合卷子的秘诀, CPU资料因此而诞生!具体请阅读http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-231387-1-1.html

回复

使用道具 举报

hello
微信公众号:ieltstofel

QQ|Archiver|手机版|小黑屋|雅思托福英语全球网 ( 闽ICP备14014910号

GMT+8, 2019-7-20 15:42 , Processed in 0.136377 second(s), 27 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表

在线客服1:
点击这里给我发消息

在线客服2:
点击这里给我发消息

在线客服3:
点击这里给我发消息

服务时间:
9:00-23:00