雅思托福英语全球网

 找回密码
 立即注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

查看: 10330|回复: 0

[全国] 2019年4月13日澳洲,新西兰,香港等亚太考区雅思A类笔试真题

[复制链接]

2017

主题

7413

帖子

2万

积分

管理员

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

积分
20083
发表于 2019-4-8 18:33:24 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
2019年4月13日澳洲,新西兰,香港等亚太考区雅思A类笔试真题回忆+答案汇总请看最下面,
欢迎英国欧洲考区、北美考区等考生积极回忆在我们微信
504918228,ieltstofel3,ielts2013,QQ504918228,QQ26346059上面

2019年4月10日、11日、12日、13日国内外雅思口语真题蹲点回忆汇总请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-244073-1-1.html
                        
互动咨询微信:504918228 或 ieltstofel3或 ielts2013或 公共微信:ieltstofel

网络授课:对于长期困扰和急于提高雅思成绩总分1-4分的全球各地烤鸭们,Edward 艾华师提供全球性网络一对一雅思专家型授课, 无数在国内外读语言/预科,硕士博士(需要4个7,4个8移民)的学员的心声:花8-10万,几十万甚至上百万在国外学英语,还不如上Edward的几次课,具体安排和说明请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-33-1-1.html

快速提高1到3分:IRP雅思考试题库答案-提供2019年4月5月6月7月8月9月10月11月12月每一场雅思预测所有口语,写作,听力,阅读等题目详细原创答案范文,整理好的更新型听力和阅读预测机经等说明请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-32-1-1.html或请加QQ26346059或QQ450784339;或公共微信号:ieltstofel 或个人微信:ielts2013,504918228咨询。

雅思公共微信平台1,2:ieltstofel,ielts2018----最新雅思考试题库,最新每一场预测及配套完整答案范文机经,快速提高总分1到3分,国内外最新每一场雅思口语笔试蹲点题目汇总,最新各种不同层次基础烤鸭雅思考试实用成功经验,雅思4个7,4个8高分实用复习备考经验

托福公共微信平台:tofelielts----最新托福考试题库,最新每一场托福预测及配套完整答案范文机经,快速提高托福20-60分,最新各种不同层次基础托福考试实用成功经验,托福100以上,110以上高分实用复习备考经验,国内外最新每一场托福口语笔试蹲点题目汇总,最新托福听说读写解题方法技巧和考试诀窍,最新托福考试信息资料

雅思成绩出炉!雅思成功之路-最新实用雅思4个8,雅思4个7高分成功经验分享http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/forum-45-1.html


中国亚太,大陆地区、香港、澳门,台湾、阿联酋、迪拜、日本,韩国,泰国,以及新加坡,马来西亚、印度尼西亚等亚太地区等精准雅思A类G类真题预测机经汇总2019年4月5月6月7月8月至12月雅思a类g类真题预测答案范文机经http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-231231-1-1.html

雅思移民类G类考试真题预测答案范文机经总贴2019年4月5月6月7月8月至12月(中国大陆雅思、亚太雅思、北美雅思,澳洲新西兰雅思、英国等欧洲雅思,非洲雅思、南美洲雅思)请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-233644-1-1.html

澳洲新西兰(奥克兰,悉尼,墨尔本,堪培拉,布里斯班,阿德雷德)等亚太地区雅思预测机经2019年4月5月6月7月8月至12月A类G类真题预测答案范文机经汇总http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-191939-1-1.html

加拿大、美国、墨西哥、格陵兰、巴拿马等国家-北美考区雅思预测机经2019年4月5月6月7月8月至12月雅思A类G类真题预测答案范文机经汇总http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-215691-1-1.html

英国、法国、爱儿兰、德国、意大利、瑞典、挪威、芬兰、荷兰、丹麦、俄罗斯等欧洲考区雅思预测机经2019年4月5月6月7月8月至12月A类G类真题预测答案范文机经汇总http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-190929-1-1.html

雅思机考2019年4月5月6月7月8月至12月广州、北京、上海、重庆雅思机考a类g类精准预测答案范文机经及全面复指导汇总 http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-241830-1-1.html

澳洲新西兰雅思机考2019年4月5月6月7月8月悉尼,奥克兰,墨尔本等雅思机考a类g类精准预测答案范文机经及全面复指导汇总请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-243122-1-1.html

美雅思机考答案2019年4月5月6月7月8月9月10月11月12月至2020年12月加拿大,多伦多等北美雅思机考a类g类精准预测答案范文机经及全面复指导汇总请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-243363-1-1.html

非洲雅思考区真题预测答案:南非、埃及、尼日利亚、阿尔及利亚、摩洛哥、赞比亚、科特迪瓦等非洲地区雅思预测机经2019年4月5月6月7月8月至12月A类G类真题预测答案范文机经汇总http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-232741-1-1.html

南美洲雅思考区真题预测答案:阿根廷、巴西、智利、哥伦比亚、委内瑞拉、圭亚那、苏里南、厄瓜多尔等南美洲考区雅思预测机经2019年4月5月6月7月8月至12月A类G类真题预测答案范文机经汇总http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-232749-1-1.html

中东地区雅思A类G类真题预测答案:沙特、伊朗、科威特、伊拉克、阿联酋、阿曼、卡塔尔、巴林、土耳其、以色列等中东雅思预测机经2019年4月5月6月7月8月至12月雅思真题预测答案范文机经汇总请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-236315-1-1.html

2019年4月13日澳洲,新西兰,香港等亚太考区雅思A类笔试真题回忆+答案汇总
回忆1:
墨尔本
写作 小作文两个floor plan 一个2005 一个present day 对比
大作文 现在people like to eat wider variety of food from other region more than local food,这个trend已经advantage大于disadvantage了 你同意不?
回忆2:
听力
section1 讲二手车的
section2 讲MUFS 种地什么的
section 3 两个人讲对walking的research
section4 讲什么是gamifiction怎么use 还有further consider什么的
回忆3:
[size=13.3333px]阅读
第一篇 讲plastic
第二篇讲一个ancient city
第三篇讲怎么reduce cook时候的smoke 用什么新能源还有还烟囱啥的
回忆4:
小作文 地图 艺术馆一楼平面图05年的和现在的对比
大作文 吃外地产食物的利弊
回忆5:
亚太区A类小作文地图题,大作文In many countries, people like to eat a wider variety of food from other region more than local food. As a result, much of the food has to come from other regions.Do the advantages of this trend outweigh its disadvantages?
回忆6:
听力 S4非洲游牧部落及定居部落vertical,cabin,camels,portable, young,grain,clothing, food, tents,Intermediate
回忆7:
阅读:
Passage1:塑料发展史(The Development of Plastics)
A
When rubber was first commercially produced in Europe during the nineteenth century, it rapidly became a very important commodity, particularly in the fields of transportation and electricity. However, during the twentieth century a number of synthetic materials, called plastics, superseded natural rubber in all but a few applications.
B
Rubber is a polymer – a compound containing large molecules that are formed by the bonding of many smaller, simpler units, repeated over and over again. The same bonding principle – polymerization – underlies the creation of a huge range of plastics by the chemical industry.
C
The first plastic was developed as a result of a competition in the USA. In the 1860s, $10, 000 was offered to anybody who could replace ivory – suppliers of which are declining – with something equally good as a material for making billiard balls. The prize was won by John Wesley Hyatt with a material called celluloid. Celluloid was made by dissolving cellulose, a carbohydrate derived from plants, in a solution of camphor dissolved in ethanol. This new material rapidly found used in the manufacture of products such as knife handles, detachable collars and cuffs, spectacle frames and photographic film. Without celluloid, the film industry could never have got off the ground at the end of the 19th century.
D
Celluloid can be repeatedly softened and reshaped by heat, and is known as a thermoplastic. In 1907 Leo Baekeland, a Belgian chemist working in the USA, invented a different kind of plastic by causing phenol and formaldehyde to react together. Baekeland called the material Bakelite, and it was the first of the thermosets – plastics that can be cast and moulded while hot, but cannot be softened by heat and reshaped once they have set. Bakelite was a good insulator, and was resistant to water, acids and moderate heat. With these properties it was soon being used in the manufacture of switches, household items, such as knife handles and electrical components for cars.
E
Soon chemists began looking for other small molecules that could be strung together to make polymers. In the 1930s, British chemists discovered that the gas ethylene would polymerise under heat and pressure to form a thermoplastic they called polythene. Polypropylene followed in the 1950s. Both were used to make bottles, pipes and plastic bags. A small change in the starting material – replacing a hydrogen atom in ethylene with a chlorine atom – produced PVS (polyvinyl chloride), a hard, fireproof plastic suitable for drains and gutters. And by adding certain chemicals, a soft form of PVC could be produced, suitable as a substitute for rubber in items such as waterproof clothing. A closely related plastic was Teflon, or PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene). This had a very low coefficient of friction, making it ideal for bearings, rollers and non-stick frying pans. Polystyrene, developed during the 1930s in Germany, was a clear. Glass-like material, used in food containers, domestic appliances and toys. Expanded polystyrene – a white, rigid foam – was widely used in packaging and insulation. Polyurethanes, also developed in Germany, found uses as adhesives, coatings, and – in the form of rigid foams – as insulation materials. They are all produced from chemicals derived from crude oil, which contains exactly the same elements – carbon and hydrogen – as many plastics.
F
The first of the man-made fibres, nylon, was also created in the 1930s. Its inventor was a chemist called Wallace Carothers, who worked for the Du Pont company in the USA. He found that under the right conditions, two chemicals- hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid – would form a polymer that could be pumped out through holes and stretched to form long glossy threads that could be woven like silk. Its first use was to make parachutes for the US armed forces in World War Ⅱ. In the post-war years nylon completely replaced silk in the manufacture of stockings. Subsequently many other synthetic fibres joined nylon, including Orlon, Acrilan and Terylene. Today most garments are made of a blend of natural fibres, such as cotton ansd wool, and man-made fibres that make fabrics easier to look after.
G
The great strength of plastic is its indestructibility. However, this quality is also something of a drawback: beaches all over the world, even on the remotest islands, are littered with plastic bottles that nothing can destroy. Nor is it very easy to recycle plastics, as different types of plastics are often used in the same items and call for different treatments. Plastics can be made biodegradable by incorporating into their structure a material such as starch, which is attacked by bacteria and caused the plastic to fall apart. Other materials can be incorporated that gradually decay in the sunlight – although bottles made of such materials have to be stored in the dark, to ensure that they do not disintegrate before they have been used.
答案:
1. photographic film
2. Bakelite
3. switches
4. Britain 或 UK
5. fireproof
6. clear and glass-like
7. rigid
8. FALSE
9. NOT GIVEN
10. FALSE
11. TRUE
12. FALSE
13. TRUE


Passage2: 土耳其考古(An ancient city)
  A
  Everybodyknew about Lourdes Mary Cave, we can find it in France. And this Mary Cavebecame an inspiration to many countries and cities. Likewise when we visitedJogja. We found some Mary Caves too. One of them is Tritis Cave. This cavetouted as The Most Exotic Mary Cave.Tritis Cave situated at Wonosari, southernof Jogja. Pricesly located at the hill of Mountains Seribu, Dusun Bulu,Kabupaten Gunung Kidul, Wonosari. To reach this place we take time about 1.5hours or 50 kilometers from city center. Looks far and take a long time, hmmm.I don't think so. Because we can see beautiful landscape along the way. And wewill not be bored.
  B
  First, thiscave named Tritis Singkil Cave. This place known as ghostlike place becausethis cave is very quiet and far from peoples routine. So, many people used thisplace for hermitage. And then a child found this cave and he try to tell thechurch pastor. By local peoples this place used to celebrate Christmas Mass forlocal Catholic. After that the terrible impression of this cave graduallydisappeared. Now this cave famous as Tritis Cave and many Catholics came hereto praying. Usually many of them came to this place at May or October becauseboth of this month known as month of Mary.
  C
  Not easy toarrive this cave. From parking area we need to take 2 kilometers for thedistance by walking. Traversed by a winding road and the vehicle can not beskipped. On the way we'll find children or local people that give the directionso that we can reach the cave faster and safer. Before the visitor reach thecave usually they perform the cross road. There are 14 stations that must bepassed first. Arriving at the Mount of Golgotha, we can see a situation similarto the original. There are three large cross where Jesus was crucified withBarnabas.
  D
  Tritis wordtaken from Java language it's mean water droplets. The water droplets at thecave cames from cave ceiling. This cave still looks natural and decorated withstalactite and stalagmite that's why it looks exotic. Many people interpret thewater droplets with God blessing that down to the visitor. And the water becamethe symbol of human life what human existence should be accepted. That is thespirit of simplicity of Tritis Cave.
  E
  Besides thatthe visitors belief that the water can heal various diseases. So after prayingthey take the water to some bottles and bring it home. Futhermore this waterbecame a special blessing for residents around. Because surrounding naturalcondition was barren and local people used it for daily necessities.
参考答案:
1. C
2. E
3. D
4. G
5. F
6. B
7. courtyard
8. doorway
9. ovalbasins
10. sheep’swool
11. tomb
12. B
13. C

Passage3: 室内空气污染
参考答案:
27. A
28. C
29. B
30. A
31. D
判断题5
32. YES
33. NOT GIVEN
34. NO
35. NO
36. YES
配对题3
37.C
38.G
39.F
40.E
回忆8:
听力 A卷
Section 1 二手车
1.First car has a problem with the light
2.The second car was used by the manager
3.Wheels have been replaced
4.The advantage of the third car:Automatic
5.Length of usage: 8 years
6.Address: Station Road
7.Day to meet: Thursday
8.Place to park: supermarket
9.Name of the agent: Jerald
10.Need to bring an identification

Section 2 Conversation between a student and a professor
11.This company MFUS was organized/funded by: B businessman
12.What is the unexpected advantage provide by MFUS for disable people: A container
13.C it was practical advice about gardening
14.About which institution the student wanted to do the research: A school
15.To whom the research should be shown before final submission: C tutor
16.University – B consultation about the efficient use of soil for cultivation
17.Food market – C conducts a workshop about health use of vegetables
18.A about eating to keep you fit
19.Government – D use of green house
20.Hospital –E cooking advice

Section 3 Creativity and exercise
21.Remind similar research
22.Walking and sitting
23.A pattern of activity
24.Doubtful the conclusion
25.Cause of the development
26.Footwear – C bones
27.Walking long distance – E eyesight
28.Elderly – F regular bedtime
29.Mountain – B stamina
30.待回忆

Section 4 Gamification
31.The game used in business is mainly for marketing
32.Initially used on airlines
33.Online feedback
34.Pilots
35.Game should be focused on fun
36.Game has been applied in the medical filed like to help elder people to train their hands
37.Behaviors
38.Encourage people to do more exercise by painting the stairs like a piano
39.Technology
40.Game agency should protect people’s privacy

回忆9:
听力 B卷
Section 1 Travelling consulting info
1.Contact phone number: 0795847022
2.Best time to call: Thursday morning
3.Number of people travelling: 7
4.Date of outward journey: 22 November
5.Purpose of trip: A wedding
6.Special requirement: one passenger cannot eat cheese
7.Last country visited: India
8.Purpose of last foreign trip: business
9.Customer’s comment on the website: too slow
10.Email address: Speedtch.com

Section 2 Art gallery visit
11.When was this art gallery open to the public? – C year 1888
12.The owner of the art gallery wanted it to be - A textile factory
13.The biggest capital funded by –A local government
14.What will be open to the public? – B sculpture garden
15.Visits’ attention: B tickets should use in a certain time
16.Media room – E
17.Tea house – A
18.The web room – B
19.Café – C
20.Shop - D

Section 4 非洲游牧部落和定居部落
1.There are 2 types of migration:vertical
2.Then for accommodation, settle in cabin
3.Transport by camel
4.Live in tents
5.Which are light and portable
6.More young people choose to
7.What to exchange for settler: greeng rain
8.What to exchange for nomad clothing
9.To harvest food
10.Intermediate mixed between two lifestyles

回忆10:
阅读
第一篇:Researcher on the Tree Crown(树冠研究)
原文:
You should spend about 20 minutes on Question 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage below.
A
The forest canopy-the term given to the aggregated crowns of trees in a forest-is thought to host up to 40 per cent of all species, of which ten per cent could be unique to the forest roof. "We're dealing with the richest, least known, most threatened habitat on Earth," says Andrew Mitchell, the executive director of the Global Canopy Programme/ a collection of groups undertaking research into this lofty world. "The problem with our understanding of forests is that nearly all the information we have has been gleaned from just two meters above the soil, and yet we're dealing with trees that grow to heights of 60 meters, or in the case of the tallest redwood 112 meters. It's like doctors trying to treat humans by only looking at their feet."
B
Tropical rainforest comprises the richest of ecosystems, rivalled only by coral reel for its diversity and complex interrelationships. And a great deal of that diversity lives up in the canopy-an estimated 70-90 per cent of life in the rainforest exists in the trees; one in ten of all vascular plants are canopy dwellers; and about 20-25 per cent of all invertebrates are thought to be unique to the canopy.
C
The first Briton to actually get into the canopy may have been Sir Francis Drake who, in 1573, gained his first glimpse of the Pacific Ocean from a tall tree in Darien, Panama. However, the first serious effort to reach and study the canopy didn't begin until 1929. The Oxford University Expedition to British Guiana, led by Major RWG Hingston, still ended up help of locals when it came to building an observation platform. It was a successful expedition all the same, despite the colony's acting governor getting stuck high up on a winched seat during a visit. In terms of canopy access, the French have proved themselves to be excellent innovators, taking things further with the development of 'lighter-than-air platforms -balloons and related equipment, to you and me. Francis Halle; from the Laboratoire de Botanique Tropicale at Montpellier University took to a balloon in the mid-1980s in order to approach the canopy from above. His work in French Guiana was inspired by the use in Gabon of a tethered helium balloon by Marcel and Annette Hladick. Halle went one further by using a small purpose-built airship-a cigar-shaped balloon with propellers to aid manoeuvrability. "We suddenly had a mobile system that could move around the treetops; there was no other means of doing this," says Mitchell.
D
From this, two balloon-dependent features have developed: the radeau or raft, and the luge or sledge. The raft is a 'floating' platform, employed by French academics Dany Cleyet-Marrel and Laurent Pyot and is essentially an island in the treetops. Made of kevlar mesh netting and edged with inflated neoprene tubes, it rests on top of the canopy, allowing sampling (mostly of plants and insects) to take place at the edges of the platform, and can stay in position for several days. The luge, on the other hand, is an inflated hexagon similar to a traditional balloon basket but with a hole in the bottom covered with Kevlar mesh. Such techniques aren't without their problems, however, "balloons can cover larger areas, especially for collection purposes, but they are extremely expensive- Jibe raft alone cost 122,000 [euro] (86,000 [pounds sterling]) in 2001], nut very effective because you can only reach the tops of the trees, and are highly dependent on the weather, " says Dr Wilfried Morawetz, director of systematic botany at the University of Leipzig. “Balloons can usually only be used in the early morning for two to four hours. Last time, we could only fly three times during a whole week." Given these factors, it comes as no surprise that operations involving these balloons numbered just six between 1986 and 2001.
E
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama. Smith had the idea of using a static crane to get into the treetops. Un-tethered balloons may allow widely distributed sites to be sampled, but cranes allow scientists to study an area of at least a hectare from soil to canopy throughout the year, year after year. "Cranes beat any other access mode. They are cheap, reliable and fast. In two minutes I can reach any point in our forest, which is essential for comparative measurements across species," says Professor Christian Korner of the University of Basel. Korner is using a static crane in a unique carbon dioxide-enrichment experiment in Switzerland, in an attempt to discover how forests might respond to the global increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (see Swiss canopy-crane carbon experiment, right). For reasons of convenience, cranes are generally situated close to cities or a research center. Leipzig University has a crane not far from the town, the Location allowing scientists to study the effect of city pollutants on forests. In order to increase the amount of canopy a crane can access, some have been mounted on short rail tracks. In "1995, Dr Wilfried Morawetz was the first to use this technique, installing a crane on 150 meters of track in Venezuelan rainforest. “In my opinion, cranes should be the core of canopy research in the future," he says.
F
It appears that the rest of the scientific community has now come around to Mitchell's way of thinking. "I think most scientists thought him mad to consider such a complex field station at first," says internationally respected 'canopist' Meg Lowman, the executive director of the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens. "However, we've all come to realize that a combination of methods, a long-term approach to ecological studies and a collaborative approach are the absolute best ways to advance canopy science. A permanent canopy field station would allow that to happen." With A dedicated group of canopy scientists working together and a wide range of tools available for them to get into the treetops, we're now finally on our way towards a true understanding of the least-known terrestrial habitat.
  Questions 14-18
  The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-F
  Which paragraph contains the following information?
  Write the correct letter A-F, in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet
  14. The Scientific significance for committing canopy study.
  15. The first academic research attempt mentioned to get to the top canopy.
  16. The overview idea of forest canopy and the problem of understanding the forests.
  17. A recognition for a long term effect and cooperation.
  18. An innovation accessing to treetop which proved to be an ultimate solution till now.
  Questions 19-22
  Summary
  Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using No More than Two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 19-22 on your answer sheet.
  Scientists keep trying new methods to access to the canopy of the treetop. Though early attempt succeeded in building an observation platform yet the help from the 19 was imperative; further innovators made by the French who built a platform with equipment by using 20 . Later, the ‘floating’ platform of 21 is serving as an island in the treetops. Then finally, there came the next major breakthrough in Panama. Scientists applied 22 to access to the treetops, which are proved to be the center of canopy research in today and in the future.
  Questions 23- 27
  Use the information in the passage to match the category (listed A-F) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 23-27 on your answer sheet.
  NB you may use any letter more than once
  A. Sir Francis Drake
  B. Wilfried Morawetz
  C. Dany Cleyet-Marrel
  D. Francis Halle
  E. Christian Korner
  F. Alan Smith
  23. Scientist whose work was inspired by the method used by other researchers.
  24. Scientist who made a claim that balloon could only be used in a limited frequency or time.
  25. Scientist who initiated a successful access mode which is cheap and stable.
  26. Scientist who had committed canopy-crane experiment for a specific scientific project.
  27. Scientist who initiated the use of crane on the short rail tracks.
  参考译文:
  树冠的研究者
  A
  森林树冠层是用来描述森林中所有树冠总和的术语,是超过40%生物物种的栖息地,其中10%的物种是只生活在树冠上的。Global Canopy Programme是专门研究树冠的组织,它的执行主席Andrew Mitchell说道:“我们正在研究地球上最丰富,最鲜为人知但是 又最受威胁的栖息地。我们对森林认识的问题在于几乎所有我们收集的信息只是从距离地面2米的地方获得的,但是我们却要以此研究关于距离地面60米髙的树,或是最高达112米的红木这样的树木的问题。这就好比医生只能通过看病人的脚来治愈病人。”
  B
  热带雨林包含最丰富的生态系统,从生物多样性和生物之间关系的复杂性上来讲,只有珊瑚礁可以与之媲美。而其中大部分的多样性的生物都居住在树冠上,据估计雨林中70%-90%的生物居住在树上,有十分之一的导管植物是生长在树冠层,大约20%-25%的无脊椎动物只生活在树冠层。
  C
  第一个真正意义上进入树冠层进行研究的英国人是Sir Francis Drake,他在1573年在巴拿马的Darien的一刻高树第一次看到了太平洋。但是第一个真正意义上的关于树冠的研究指导1929年才开始。Major RWG Hingston领导的牛津大学科考队赴英属圭亚那进行考察,最终在需要建造一个观察平台时,他们还是向当地人进行了求助。这次科考总的来说还是很成功的,尽管代理领导者在坐着轿子参观的过程中被卡到悬在空中。就到达树冠这个层面而吉,法国人可以说是优秀的创新者,他们通过比空气还轻的平台也就是气球和相关的设备来运送东西。来自Montpellier大学热带植物研究所的Francis Halle在1980年代中期通过一个气球从空中到达树冠。他在法属圭亚那的工作收了Marcel和Annette Hladic在加蓬共和国氦气球的启发。Halle更近一部,他乘坐了专门建造的一个小型的飞行器——长得像雪茄形状的气球,是靠螺旋桨来增加机动性的。Mitchell说道:“我们突然有了一个可移动的系统来在树梢附近活动,除此别无他法。”
  D
  自此以后,两个以来气球的工具就产生了:筏子或是雪橇,筏子是“漂浮着的平台”,被法国学者Danny Cleyet—Marrel和Laurent Pyot应用在树顶的一个小岛上,是用橡胶渔网边缘配上充气的氯丁橡胶管子做成的。这个小筏子停留在树冠层的顶部,这样可以让生物抽样(主要是植物和昆虫)可以在平台的边缘停留数日。在另一方面,雪橇呈充气六边形,和传统的气球篮子相似,在底部的中间有一个洞,上面覆盖着橡胶网,当然这种技术不是完美的。莱比锡大学系统植物研究所主任Dr Wilfried Morawets说道:“气球可以覆盖更大的区域,尤其是手机信息的时候,但是它们的造价非常高,Jibe筏子造价122,000欧元(约合86000英镑,按2001年的汇率)虽然这种方式很有效,但是只能是研究人员到达顶部并且对天气的依赖性很强。气球只能在淸早使用2-4小时,上周整整一周因为天气原因我们只能出去考察3次。”鉴于以上因素,就不难理解为什么在1986年和2001年间只存六次研究活动采用气球。
  E
  接下来另一个重要的创新来自巴拿马Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute的Alan Smith,他是采用一个静止的起重机来到达树冠。没有绳子拴着的气球能够大范围地采集样本,但是起重机可以让科学家年复一年地通年集中研究一公顷的范围内从土壤到树冠。Basel大学的教授Christian Korner认为“起重机比其他任何一种方法都要好,它们好,它们又便宜有可靠而且快速。我可以在两分钟之内到达想要到达的森林的任何位置,这对于物种间的比较研究至关重要。” Christian Korner在瑞士用充满二氧化碳的空气中用起重机进行一个实验。试图揭开森林将如何应对全球二氧化碳含量上升。为了简便起见,起重机一般都安置在靠近城市或是研究中心,莱比锡大学在离城镇不远的地方就有一个研究用的起重机,该地点可以让研究者对污染物对森林的影响进行研究。为了增加起重机能到达的树冠的数量,一些起重机放在短的铁轨上。在1995年,Dr Wilfried Morawets是第一个采用这样技术的人,在Venezuelan雨林假期了150米的轨道。他说道:“在我看来,起重机将是未来研究树冠的核心工具。”
  F
  似乎进行树冠研究的其他人和Mitchell的观点一样,被组委“树冠学家”的Madie Selby Botanical Gardens的执行主任Meg Lowan说道:“期初许多科学家肯定认为Mitchell疯了才会想到建这样一个复杂的实地观察站。但是我们逐渐都点识到,将不同方法进行组合,从而能够用长期合作的方法来进行生态研究是推进树冠研究最好的方法。一个永久的树冠研究站能够做到这一点。”一群致力于研究树冠的科学家通力合作,运用一系列的工具到达树顶,从而可以真正了解最不为人知的陆地柄息地—树冠。”
答案:
QQ图片20190413173446.png
回忆11:
回忆12:

为更好地促进做好Edward艾华师最新预测,请烤鸭们积极回忆在本文下面评论栏目里面,请尽量详细,并标明城市考点,A/G类,听力,阅读,大小作文,谢谢!特请亚太其他国家,欧洲,北美,南美,非洲等其他考区的烤鸭们也积极回忆吧


2019年4月6日雅思考试总体反馈:重磅!2019年4月6日雅思听力四部分全部命中!命中A类G类大小作文原题!命中两篇阅读、命中口语大部分真题原题,4月6日雅思听说读写全面大中,A类G类全面开花!(不同考区时差、考生回忆不够齐全,待补充,还在不断更新中…)祝贺IRP会员将出现不少雅思高分人才!总体反馈请复制链接进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-244052-1-1.htmlhttp://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/forum-36-1.html

特别提醒:雅思考试20多年来,有非常严格的规律性和出题思路。全世界有6大考区,而只有一个剑桥考试中心几个人在出题,每个考区一周平均要出一份考卷,一个月很多考区平均出24份考卷。(尤其是2018-2019年以来,中国大陆的广州、北京、上海、重庆,还有北美、澳洲、亚太考区开始增加雅思机考的选择,机考的城市几乎每天都有雅思考试,一个月考官要出20几份雅思机考卷子,机考跟传统纸质考试的区别只是纸质和电脑上考试的区别,考试内容、评分标准、难度等级、考试题型、考试安全设置等方面均与现行的纸笔模式完全一致。)雅思考试如此频繁,如何保证达到难度一样呢,如何保证新题难度、准确度和评价机制公平呢,所以只能是20年来的题库旧题目的有效组合,新题不能超出5%-10%,每份雅思卷子都是90%-99%以上旧题。每一份雅思考试试题其实是大部分旧题原题真题+个别新题目的重新组合,多年雅思考官和专家Edward老师非常熟悉雅思出题规律和听说读写题库出题组合卷子的秘诀,IRP资料因此而诞生!具体请阅读http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-32-1-1.html

回复

使用道具 举报

hello
微信公众号:ieltstofel

QQ|Archiver|手机版|小黑屋|雅思托福英语全球网 ( 闽ICP备14014910号

GMT+8, 2019-6-19 06:50 , Processed in 0.128467 second(s), 30 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表

在线客服1:
点击这里给我发消息

在线客服2:
点击这里给我发消息

在线客服3:
点击这里给我发消息

服务时间:
9:00-23:00