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[国内外] 2018年6月23日大陆考区雅思A类笔试真题+答案+回忆

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发表于 2018-6-16 12:16:01 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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2018年6月23日大陆考区雅思A类笔试真题+答案+回忆
回忆1:
阅读:罗马饮食和宴会?业余自然学家?关于乐观的研究?
回忆2:
小作文 地图题:大学校园的某块区域现在和未来的规划。
大作文:more and more people like to buy famous brands of clothes, cars and other items. What are the reasons and do you think it's a positive or negative development?
回忆3:
阅读:第一篇是关于旧罗马的饮食文化

第二篇是关于 Amateur Naturalists(业余自然学家)
From the results of an annual Alaskan betting contest to sightings of migratory birds, ecologists are using a wealth of unusual data to predict the impact of climate change.
  A
Tim Sparks slides a small leather-bound notebook out of an envelope. The book’s yellowing pages contain beekeeping notes made between 1941 and 1969 by the late Walter Coates of Kilworth, Leicestershire. He adds it to his growing pile of local journals, birdwatchers’ lists and gardening diaries. “We’re uncovering about one major new record each month,” he says, “I still get surprised.” Around two centuries before Coates, Robert Marsham, a landowner from Norfolk in the east of England, began recording the life cycles of plants and animals on his estate — when the first wood anemones flowered, the dates on which the oaks burst into leaf and the rooks began nesting. Successive Marshams continued compiling these notes for 211 years.
  B
Today, such records are being put to uses that their authors could not possibly have expected. These data sets, and others like them, are proving invaluable to ecologists interested in the timing of biological events, or phenology. By combining the records with climate data, researchers can reveal how, for example, changes in temperature affect the arrival of spring, allowing ecologists to make improved predictions about the impact of climate change. A small band of researchers is combing through hundreds of years of records taken by thousands of amateur naturalists. And more systematic projects have also started up, producing an overwhelming response. “The amount of interest is almost frightening,” says Sparks, a climate researcher at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology in Monks Wood, Cambridgeshire.
  C
Sparks first became aware of the army of “closet phenologists”, as he describes them, when a retiring colleague gave him the Marsham records. He now spends much of his time following leads from one historical data set to another. As news of his quest spreads, people tip him off to other historical records, and more amateur phenologists come out of their closets. The British devotion to recording and collecting makes his job easier — one man from Kent sent him 30 years’ worth of kitchen calendars, on which he had noted the date that his neighbour’s magnolia tree flowered.
  D
Other researchers have unearthed data from equally odd sources. Rafe Sagarin, an ecologist at Stanford University in California, recently studied records of a betting contest in which participants attempt to guess the exact time at which a specially erected wooden tripod will fall through the surface of a thawing river. The competition has taken place annually on the Tenana River in Alaska since 1917, and analysis of the results showed that the thaw now arrives five days earlier than it did when the contest began.
E
Overall, such records have helped to show that, compared with 20 years ago, a raft of natural events now occur earlier across much of the northern hemisphere, from the opening of leaves to the return of birds from migration and the emergence of butterflies from hibernation. The data can also hint at how nature will change in the future. Together with models of climate change, amateurs’ records could help guide conservation. Terry Root, an ecologist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, has collected birdwatchers’ counts of wildfowl taken between 1955 and 1996 on seasonal ponds in the American Midwest and combined them with climate data and models of future warming. Her analysis shows that the increased droughts that the models predict could halve the breeding populations at the ponds. “The number of waterfowl in North America will most probably drop significantly with global warming,” she says.
  F
But not all professionals are happy to use amateur data. “A lot of scientists won’t touch them, they say they’re too full of problems,” says Root. Because different observers can have different ideas of what constitutes, for example, an open snowdrop. “The biggest concern with ad hoc observations is how carefully and systematically they were taken,” says Mark Schwartz of the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, who studies the interactions between plants and climate. “We need to know pretty precisely what a person’s been observing — if they just say ‘I noted when the leaves came out’, it might not be that useful.” Measuring the onset of autumn can be particularly problematic because deciding when leaves change colour is a more subjective process than noting when they appear.
  G
Overall, most phenologists are positive about the contribution that amateurs can make. “They get at the raw power of science: careful observation of the natural world,” says Sagarin. But the professionals also acknowledge the need for careful quality control. Root, for example, tries to gauge the quality of an amateur archive by interviewing its collector. “You always have to worry— things as trivial as vacations can affect measurement. I disregard a lot of records because they’re not rigorous enough,” she says. Others suggest that the right statistics can iron out some of the problems with amateur data. Together with colleagues at Wageningen University in the Netherlands, environmental scientist Arnold van Vliet is developing statistical techniques to account for the uncertainty in amateur phenological data. With the enthusiasm of amateur phenologists evident from past records, professional researchers are now trying to create standardized recording schemes for future efforts. They hope that well-designed studies will generate a volume of observations large enough to drown out the idiosyncrasies of individual recorders. The data are cheap to collect, and can provide breadth in space, time and range of species. “It’s very difficult to collect data on a large geographical scale without enlisting an army of observers,” says Root.
  H
Phenology also helps to drive home messages about climate change. “Because the public understand these records, they accept them,” says Sparks. It can also illustrate potentially unpleasant consequences, he adds, such as the finding that more rat infestations are reported to local councils in warmer years. And getting people involved is great for public relations. “People are thrilled to think that the data they’ve been collecting as a hobby can be used for something scientific — it empowers them,” says Root.
  Questions 27-33
  Reading Passage 3 has eight paragraphs A-H.
  Which paragraph contains the following information?
  Write the correct letter A-H in boxes 27-33 on your answer sheet.
  27 The definition of phenology
  28 How Sparks first became aware of amateur records
  29 How people reacted to their involvement in data collection
  30 The necessity to encourage amateur data collection
  31 A description of using amateur records to make predictions
  32 Records of a competition providing clues for climate change
  33 A description of a very old record compiled by generations of amateur naturalists
  Questions 34-36
  Complete the sentences below with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage.
  Write your answers in boxes 34-36 on your answer sheet.
  34 Walter Coates’s records largely contain the information of ____.
  35 Robert Marsham is famous for recording the ______ of animals and plants on his land.
  36 According to some phenologists, global warming may cause the number of waterfowl in    North America to drop significantly due to increased _______.
  Questions 37-40
  Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.
  Write your answers in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.
  37 Why do a lot of scientists discredit the data collected by amateurs?
  A Scientific method was not used in data collection.
  B Amateur observers are not careful in recording their data.
  C Amateur data is not reliable.
  D Amateur data is produced by wrong candidates.
  38 Mark Schwartz used the example of leaves to illustrate that?
  A Amateur records can’t be used.
  B Amateur records are always unsystematic.
  C The color change of leaves is hard to observe.
  D Valuable information is often precise.
  39 How do the scientists suggest amateur data should be used?
  A Using improved methods.
  B Be more careful in observation.
  C Use raw materials.
  D Applying statistical techniques in data collection.
  40 What’s the implication of phenology for ordinary people?
  A It empowers the public.
  B It promotes public relations.
  C It warns people of animal infestation.
  D It raises awareness about climate change in the public.
答案:
27.B   28.C    29.H   30.G   31.E    32D   33.A
34. beekeeping   35. life cycles   36. droughts   
37.C    38.D    39.A     40.D

试题分析:
  27. “phenology”明显是一个专业词汇,在文章中不会出现同义替换,且一个专业词汇的“definition”应该在第一次提到这个词汇的地方,所以可以回原文直接定位于段落B 第三行“…the timing of biological events, or phenology”,所以phenology 就是生物气候学,答案为B。
  28. 利用人名细节词“Sparks”和反向思维词“first”很容易定位于段落C 第一句话“Sparks first became aware of the army of ‘closet phenologists’, as he describes them…”,所以答案为C。
  29. 此题难度较高, 对应段落H 最后一句话“People are thrilled to think that the data they’ve been collecting as a hobby can be used for something scientific…”,原文“thrilled” 对应题目“reaction”,所以答案为H。
  30. 此题难度也较高,对应段落G 最后一句话“It’s very difficult to collect data on a large geographical scale without enlisting an army of observers”,所以答案为G。
  31. 利用反向思维词“using amateur records”和“predictions”来判断,原文对应信息应出现一些数据或未来的时间。该题对应段落E 中部“Terry Root, an ecologist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor…” 之后的所有信息。“birdwatcher’s counts of waterfowl”对应“amateur records”,最后两句话对应“predictions”,所以答案为E。
  32. 利用细节词“a competition”可以定位于段落D 最后一句话“The competition has taken place annually on the Tenana River…”,所以答案为D。
  33. 利用反向思维词“a very old record”,可以判断原文对应信息中应该会出现时间,并讲到一个具体的“record”。对应信息为段落A 最后一句话“Successive Marshams continued compiling these notes for 211 years”。原文“successive Marshams”对应题目“generations of amateur naturalists”,原文“211 years”对应“very old”。所以答案为A。
  Questions 34-36
  解答:
  34. 利用细节词“Walter Coates” 定位于段落A 第二行“The book’s yellowing pages contain beekeeping notes…by the late Walter Coates”,所以答案为beekeeping。
  35. 利用细节词“Robert Marsham” 定位于段落A 第六行“Robert Marsham…began recording the life cycles of plants and animals on his estate”,所以答案为life cycles。
  36. 利用细节词“global warming”和“waterfowl in the North America”定位于段落E倒数第四行“Her analysis shows that the increased droughts…could halve the breeding population…”,所以答案为droughts。
  Questions 37-40
  解答:
  37. 利用细节信息“scientists discredit the data”定位于段落F 第一、二句话“A lot of scientists won’t touch them, they say they’re too full of problems”。原文“won’t touch them”对应题目“discredit”,选项C“not reliable”对应原文“too full of problems”,所以答案为C。
  38. 利用细节词“Mark Schwartz”和“leaves”定位于第11 页段落F 第一行“We need to know pretty precisely what a person’s been observing— if they say ‘I noted when the leaves came out’, it might not be that useful”。破折号这里表示后半句是对前半句解释说明的例子,所以使用叶子的例子是为了说明观察要“precise”,对应选项D,所以答案为D。
  39. 本题较难,没有明显可以用来定位的细节词,但是利用顺序原则可以定位于段落G 前半部分。选项B“be more careful”的信息原文没有提及,所以排除。选项C“using raw materials”则明显与原文内容相悖,因为amateur records 必须进行严格的“quality control”。选项D“applying statistical techniques in data collection”虽然对应原文G 段落第七、八行“Others suggest that the right statistics can iron out some of the problems with amateur data”,但是这只是众多“quality control”的方法其中之一(其他还有“interview”和“create standardized recording scheme”的方法),所以过于片面,不如选项A“using improved methods”概括全面,所以答案为A。
  40. 利用细节词“phenology” 定位于段落H 第一句话“phenology also helps to drive home messages about climate change”。原文“drive home messages about climate change” 对应选项D“awareness about climate change in the public”,所以答案为D。

第三篇是乐观与健康Optimism and health
Mindset (心态) is all. How you start the year will set the template for 2009, and two scientifically backed character traits hold the key: optimism and resilience (if the prospect leaves you feeling pessimistically spineless, the good news is that you can significantly boost both of these qualities).
A
Faced with 12 months of plummeting economics and rising human distress, staunchly maintaining a rosy view might seem deucedly Pollyannaish. But here we encounter the optimism paradox. As Brice Pitt, an emeritus professor of the psychiatry of old age at Imperial College, London, told me: optimists are unrealistic. Depressive people see things as they really are, but that is a disadvantage from an evolutionary point of view. Optimism is a piece of evolutionary equipment that carried us through millennia of setbacks.
B
It has been known that optimistic has something to do with the long life, and optimists have plenty to be happy about. In other words, if you can convince yourself that things will get better, the odds of it happening will improve - because you keep on playing the game. In this light, optimism "is a habitual way of explaining your setbacks to yourself', reports Martin Seligman, the psychology professor and author of Learned Optimism. The research shows that when times get tough, optimists do better than pessimists - they succeed better at work, respond better to stress, suffer fewer depressive episodes and achieve more personal goals.
C
Studies also show that belief can help with the financial pinch. Chad Wallens, a social forecaster at the Henley Centre who surveyed middle-class Britons’ beliefs about income, has found that “he people who feel wealthiest, and those who feel poorest, actually have almost the same amount of money at their disposal. Their attitudes and behaviour patterns, however, are different from one another.”
D
Optimists have something else to be cheerful about – in general, they are more robust. For example, a study of 660 volunteers by the Yale University psychologist Dr Becca Levy, found that thinking positively adds an average of 7 years to your life. Other American research claims to have identified a physical mechanism behind this. A Harvard Medical School study of 670 men found that the optimists have significantly better lung function. The lead author, Dr Rosalind Wright, believes that attitude somehow strengthens the immune system. "Preliminary studies on heart patients suggest that, by changing a person's outlook, you can improve their mortality risk," she says.
E
Few studies have tried to ascertain the proportion of optimists in the world. But a 1995 nationwide survey conducted for the American magazine Adweek found that about half the population counted themselves as optimists, with women slightly more apt than men (53 per cent versus 48 per cent) to see the sunny side.
F
Although some optimists may be accurate in their positive beliefs about the future, others may be unrealistic-their optimism is misplaced, according to American Psychological Association. Research shows that some smokers exhibit unrealistic optimism by underestimating their relative chances of experiencing disease. An important question is whether such unrealistic optimism is associated with risk-related attitudes and behavior. We addressed this question by investigating if one's perceived risk of developing lung cancer, over and above one's objective risk, predicted acceptance of myths and other beliefs about smoking. Hierarchical regressions showed that those individuals who were unrealistically optimistic were more likely to endorse beliefs that there is no risk of lung cancer if one only smokes for a few years and that getting lung cancer depends on one's genes.
G
Of course, there is no guarantee that optimism will insulate you from the crunch's worst effects, but the best strategy is still to keep smiling and thank your lucky stars. Because (as every good sports coach knows) adversity is character-forming-so long as you practise the skills of resilience. Research among tycoons and business leaders shows that the path to success is often littered with failure: a record of sackings, bankruptcies and blistering castigations. But instead of curling into a foetal ball beneath the coffee table, they resiliency pick themselves up, learn from their pratfalls and march boldly towards the next opportunity.
H
The American Psychological Association defines resilience as the ability to adapt in the face of adversity, trauma or tragedy. A resilient person may go through difficulty and uncertainty, but he or she will doggedly bounce back.
IOptimism is one of the central traits required in building resilience, say Yale University investigators in the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. They add that resilient people learn to hold on to their sense of humour and this can help them to keep a flexible attitude when big changes of plan arc warranted. The ability to accept your lot with equanimity also plays an important role, the study adds.
J
One of the best ways to acquire resilience is through experiencing a difficult childhood, the sociologist Steven Stack reports in the Journal of Social Psychology. For example, short men are less likely to commit suicide than tall guys, he says, because shorties develop psychological defense skills to handle the bullies and mickey-taking that their lack of stature attracts. By contrast, those who enjoyed adversity-free youths can get derailed by setbacks later on because they've never been inoculated against agro.
K
Learning to overcome your fears. If you are handicapped by having had a happy childhood, then practising proactive optimism can help you to become more resilient. Studies of resilient people show that they take more risks; they court failure and learn not to fear it. And despite being thick-skinned, resilient types are also more open than average to other people. Bouncing through knock backs is all part of the process. It's about optimistic risk-taking - being confident that people will like you. Simply smiling and being warm to people can help. It's an altruistic path to self-interest - and if it achieves nothing else, it will reinforce an age-old adage: hard times can bring out the best in you.

Questions 14-18
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage.
Using no more than TWO words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.
Optimists generally are more robust. Yale University psychologist Dr Becca Levy found that an extension of around 14 to your life will be achieved by positive attitude toward life. A Harvard Medical School conduct a research which study of 15 male volunteers found that the optimists have remarkably better 16 And Dr Rosalind Wright believes optimistic life may enhance the 17 some initiative studies on 18 indicate that people can improve their mortality risk by changing into a positive outlook.

Questions 19-23
Use the information in the passage to match the people or organization (listed A-E) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-E in boxes 19-23 on your answer sheet.
A Brice Pitt
B American Psychological Association
C Martin Seligman
D Chad Wallens of Henley Centre
E Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
F Steven Stack
G American magazine Adweek
19 Different optimism result found according to gender.
20 There is no necessary relationship between happiness and money.
21 Excessive optimism may be incorrect in everyday life.
22 Optimists is advantageous for human evolution.
23 Occurrence of emergency assists resilient people in a positive way.
Questions 24-27
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 24-27 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement is true
NO if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
24 The link between longevity and optimism has been known.
25 Optimists have better personal relationship than those pessimists.
26 People who had a happy childhood do not need to practise optimism.
27 Experience of difficulties will eventually help people accumulate the fortune.

答案:
14. 7 years    15. 670     16.lung funcition    17. immune system
18.heart patients     19. G    20. D     21. B     22. A
23. E     24. YES        25. NOT GIVEN、    27.NO     27.YES

试题分析:
Question 14-18
题目类型:填空题
题号定位词文中对应点题目解析
14Robust, Yale, Becca LevyD段第二句话首先根据空格前的around判断出该空所填词性是名词。由第一句中的robust定位到D段,根据人名定位到第二句,找到文中和空格前后的对应词add = extension, around=average, to your life= to your life, 锁定答案为 7 years.
15Harvard, Medical SchoolD段第三句话该空前的介词of表明要填的词性为名词。根据大写的 Harvard, Medical School定位到第三句话,对应词study of = study of, men=male, 锁定答案为 670.
16Harvard, Medical SchoolD段第三句话和上面15题在同一句中,对应词 have significantly better = have remarkably better, 答案立即锁定为lung function.
17Rosalind WrightD段第四句话该空前的定冠词the表明要填名词。根据人名定位到第四句,对应词 enhance = strengthen, 锁定答案为 immune system.
18引号D段第五句话首先该空前的介词on表明要填名词,根据引号定位到最后第五句,对应preliminary study on = initiative study on , 锁定答案为heart patients, 注意不要漏写复数s.
Question 19-23
题目类型:搭配题
题号定位词文中对应点题目解析
19GenderE段第二句该句中扫描到大写American magazine Adweek, 对应选项G
20MoneyC 段第二句该句中扫描到大写Chad Wallens of Henley Centre, 对应选项D
21Excessive optimismF 段第一句该句中扫描到大写American Psychological Association , 对应选项B
22Human evolution A 段第三句该句中扫描到大写Brice Pitt , 对应选项A
23Emergency, resilientI 段第一句该句中扫描到大写Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 对应选项E
注:因为这题型是乱序题,在实际做题时,应先在文中scan并勾圈出A-G选项中的大写人名或机构名,同时根据所勾圈的句子的关键信息点找对应的19-23的题号。
Question 24-27
题目类型:判断题
题号定位词文中对应点题目解析
24LongevityB段第一句话题目中的longevity和原文中的the long life对应, have been known 和文中的 it has been known that对应,the link 和文中的have something to do with 对应,所以该题同义改写乐原文的句子,为YES。
25Personal relationship, pessimistic无D段中虽然有better比较级,但比较的是身体健康状况,题目中的personal relationship在文中未提及,所以为NOT GIVEN.
26Happy childhoodK 段第二句话该句话主句中的the practicing optimism can help表明童年幸福的人也是需要乐观的,和题目中表达的意思完全相反,所以为NO
27FortuneK 段最后一句话文中最后一句提到的谚语:历经磨难会终得天日。和题目中的will eventually help to accumulate fortune的意思相同.所以为YES.
注:该题型一般是顺序题,对not given的题目无法确定时,可先做下面的,比如这里25题无法确定,先定位26题出现在k段,那么25题,在c-j段中没有提及,就可以确定为not given了。
回忆4:
小作文考了个学校校园未来计划的地图题,大作文是more and more people want to own famous brandsof clothes,cars and other items. reasons for it  do you think it is a positive or negative development
回忆5:
听力
S1 第一题一串数字忘记了 然后记得有rubber bottle map baseball pump Taupo 25.50
S2后面,最后一个wildlife species是科学家,倒数第二个landscapes books business 写的writers (本来写的business ,感觉不会出现原词,就改了,拿不准),倒数第三个,有factory football local 什么的写的sport,再往上painting 是artist ,第一个讲了路易十八?选了政治
S4 previous comer(瞎蒙的) limitation advanced children rare mixture invented 别的记不得了...
回忆6:
听力
Section1:家里外出露营,寄一些需要的物品去家里,预定物品
参考答案:
rubber
tools
bottle
map
baseball
pump
Taupo
25.50


Section 2:一个人介绍Lousiana城市的过去
参考答案:
16. B
17. B
18. B
19. B
20. C

Section3:关于一个学生和老师做关于非洲艺术演讲的

Section4:介绍三类不同的语言
三种语言的特点(是否古老;vocabulary和grammar是否复杂;mixture pronunciation)
参考答案:
Greek
previous
comer
limitation
advanced
children
rare
mixture
invented
commerce
回忆7:
听力
section 1 露营购备物品(新题)

section 2 Music courses in 17Th century
11. 问男生最喜欢女生那首表演曲目的什么:A structure
12. 说话的两人觉得教授怎么样:B his subject
13. 学生认为老师为什么没讲某些内容:C teacher has a bad memory
14. 为什么这个学生要学17世纪的音乐:A he uses the knowledge already learned
15. 女的对这些设施有什么态度:B disappointed
16. why content for this course of 17th music的音乐课程还有这样的内容:C influenced by a previous staff's research
17. material - C individual ability
18. concert group - G shared the interpretation
19. reviewing system - A help to be a musician
20 understanding directions - D historical reason

section 3 绘画与画家
21. why they chose the Nigeria African arts for this presentation topic: B visited exhibitions
22. what kind of sculpture does he like most: C people
23. where did he get money from for this field trip: A from an art organization
24. what the highlight of this trip which impressed him most: B they meet a professor
25. what parts should he make revision for next draft: A enlarger photos
26. C involve more his opinion
27. what researchers should he spend more time on: B additional information about surrounding
28. D belief of locals
29. what will be more specified in the future: A data for subjects
30. D sources of material

section 4 三种不同的语言
回忆8:
回忆9:
回忆10:

为更好地促进做好Edward艾华师最新预测,请烤鸭们积极回忆在本文下面评论栏目里面,请尽量详细,并标明城市考点,A/G类,听力,阅读,大小作文,谢谢!特请亚太其他国家,欧洲,北美,南美,非洲等其他考区的烤鸭们也积极回忆吧


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