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托福口语真题预测2016年6月18日,6月25日,7月1日,7月9日10日,7...

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发表于 2016-6-12 18:31:59 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
托福口语真题预测2016年6月18日,6月25日,7月1日,7月9日10日,7月16日,8月9月10月托福口语答案范文精准冲刺版【全球网托福真题预测IPN快速提分20-60分】
托福IBT口语真题预测2016年7月8月9月10月11月托福考试口语真题预测独立作文+综合写作-快速提高分数20-60分【全球网托福真题预测IPN完美终结版】
超高命中率托福真题预测机经适用:中国大陆地区,香港,澳门,台湾,日本,韩国,泰国,以及澳大利亚,新西兰,新加坡,马来西亚等亚太地区国家。以上地区为统一试卷。北美(美国,加拿大等),欧洲(英国,法国.爱儿兰等),南美和非洲等其他考区的同学,我们同时有专门各考区的IPN预测资料100%适合复习。托福考试是全球性的,统一由美国托福考试中心出题,因此题库是一样的.预测不是一两个题目,而是个范围,由一定数量题目组成,是考试复习的重点和最可能考到的题目,希望大家按照预测认真准备,提高复习效率和质量,有的放矢,切中肯綮.本预测里面的口语,写作,听力预测题目和范围也是未来几个月的复习重点范围,后面考试的同学请按照此内容先复习。
本托福预测里面的所有听力、口语、阅读、写作等真题题目配套的完美答案IPN会员有提供,可以快速提高20-60分,具体请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-231387-1-1.html或者加公共微信平台ieltstofel;QQ504918228,QQ26346059,咨询个人微信ielts2013或者个人微信504918228
中国、澳洲、亚太、北美、欧洲、非洲、南美等各考区精准托福真题预测答案范文机经汇总2016年6月7月8月9月至10月托福真题预测答案范文机经请进入http://ieltstofelglobal.com/forum-132-1.htmlhttp://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-231387-1-1.html  
全球各大考区最高命中率的托福真题预测-雅思托福英语全球网专家提供紧跟考情的每一场考试,口语命中率为99%-100%,听力命中率为95%-100%,写作和阅读命中率90-100%。
IPN既是紧跟考情最精准的针对每一场托福考试的真题题目组成的预测,也是雅思考试最重要的的最新真题题库复习内容整理,一举两得,快速提高20到60分
IPN内容:小范围的,适合时间少的同学冲刺
1. 写作:最前面第1到10题,每一题目都有完整详细答案范文。
2. 听力:听力按照重点先后排列,根据自己的时间来取舍,主要练习和准备3-5套题,IPN资料都全部配有详细答案、听力原文、音频和解析。
3.口语: 时间少的同学准备最重点前面3-5套题目就行, IPN资料都全部配有详细答案
4.阅读:直接看最重点前面3-5套题,IPN资料都全部配有详细文章、题目、答案解析
冲刺加急最小范围IPN资料内容:小范围的,适合时间少的同学冲刺
1.  写作:最前面第1到5题,每一题目都有完整详细答案范文。
2.听力:听力按照重点先后排列,根据自己的时间来取舍,主要练习和准备最前面2-3套题,IPN资料都全部配有详细答案、听力原文、音频和解析。
3.口语:时间少的同学准备最重点前面2-3套题目就行, IPN资料都全部配有详细答案
4.阅读:直接看最重点前面2-3套题,IPN资料都全部配有详细文章、题目、答案解析
快速提高20到60分:IPN托福考试真题题库答案和最新每一场托福考试预测答案范文机经说明http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-231387-1-1.html

托福冲刺快速加分30-80分套餐系列:IPN资料+1对1托福考官专家型辅导请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-87-1-1.html
托福作文专家型批改(赠送范文)的详细说明-历任托福考官亲自批改请进入http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-276-1-1.html
历任托福考官和金牌托福培训老师Edward艾华师最新提醒:最近一段时间以来 ,托福口语题目和写作题目经常互相借用,拼凑组合,特别是新的写作题目经常取自于口语话题,这其实是好现象,说明我们的口语和写作是可以一起准备的,不要把他们孤立开来,Edward的IPN资料的口语和写作答案和范文是可以互相套用的。
我们已经完全抓住托福考试出题规律了!
每年都有人传闻哪个月会换题或者出新题,实际上每一年每个月每周考出来都是90%旧题。原因是:全世界有6大考区,而只有一个托福考试中心几个人在出题,每个考区每个月要出2-4份考卷,一个月出12-24份考卷,考官如何保证达到难度一样呢,如何保证新题难度、准确度和评价机制公平呢,所以只能是题库旧题目的有效组合,新题不能超出10%。

托福考试有题库,新题目增加每次只有一点点。
其实一整年(或者半年)每一场雅思考试试卷托福考试中心都基本提前安排好了,是有一定规律性的。每一份托福试题其实是大部分旧题目+个别新题目的重新组合,听力90%-100%是旧题,写作80%-100%旧题目或者旧题目改造组合,换汤不换药,口语98%-100%旧题目,阅读90%-100%旧题。70%次考试难度适中,20%次考试稍难,较难占10%次,托福不会有什么明显变化--难度,题型是不会变的,最多是根据每场具体情况增加修改点题库的题目,不需要迷信哪个月变题和出新题目的不符合考试规律的说法。托福考试每一场80%-90%都是旧题目,都是题库里面重新组合的!有鉴于此,Edward 研发了IPN资料
IPN资料就是最新托福考试题库(考官出题范围和内容)及最新托福考试预测的符合托福和北美人思维的地道原创答案范文,把考试题库和所有预测题目-口语和写作真题题目的答案范文、听力真题文章内容答案(有音频)、阅读真题文章预测题目和内容答案等都整理好,抓住复习重点,提高复习效率和质量。历年实践证明,这是所有托福考生必备资料和考出理想成绩的坚强后盾,一定能帮助考生提高总分20-60分,要根据每个人复习和消化程度。分为最重点,一般重点,次重点,有时间看看等…你时间越多,复习越全面。
注意:托福官方指南和外面各种托福复习模拟机经书,都只是考试的样卷,供学生熟悉考试的作用,而真正托福考试是不能考里面的内容的,真正的考试题库就是我们的IPN资料!
我们的IPN资料是紧跟考情的每周小更新的考试题库和严格按照北美托福思维的地道答案范文,完全不同于外面的书,外面的书都是无数人看的中国英语,早就过期几个世纪,跟不上考情,就算是最新的出来的书早就过期一年了,没有更新。

选择比努力更重要,方向比速度跟更重要
托福想考出好成绩,单单靠题海战术、空有应试技巧和数次的反复报考是难有成效的,这种土办法使成绩每况愈下,越考越糟,信心全无,最后放弃。只有掌握地道托福美国英语思维方式,利用托福美国人的风格和Edward艾华师的托福最新题库+真题预测来进行学习和脚踏实地复习,并挖掘右半脑潜能,用激情学习,热爱托福英语,欣赏语言,才能一举多得,在短期时间内起到事半功倍的理想成绩。一直以来,Edward 全球网络一对一学员们和IPN会员们成绩公布后来报喜说得最高频的一句话是:老师,我考过了,省了好几万元了!这是无数在国内外读语言/预科,硕士博士的学员的心声:花8-10万,几十万甚至上百万在国外学英语,还不如上Edward 的几次课http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-87-1-1.html
口语分析与预测
为方便海内外为方便国内外的考生提早有的放矢地做好托福的口语考试复习准备工作,应广大考生要求,Edward 提早几个月做托福口语的预测,采用全球最高命中率的独家预测法,把未来的托福考试重点口语题目预测归纳在后面。我IPN资料有提供所有预测口语的详细答案,具体可以看http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-231387-1-1.html迅速提高托福口语分数最好的办法就是背和说练IPN题库资料口语预测题目及配套的地道原创北美托福风格的答案,形成一套有把握的口语词句和素材,并挑选一些题目每天对练,一份耕耘一份收获!
Edward多年来的托福教学经验和无数成功考生的实践经验证明:短时间提高托福口语的捷径如下----
建议基础好的考生们在考前要尽量写完我所预测的IPN口语题目的准备,并读背答案范文提高。预测里面的口语题目就是近期几个月的重点,最好都要练习说一说。只有完成这个指标,才能形成自己的一套口头禅,才有自己一整套的句子表达,才能应万变,考试时口语才能脱口而出。人生是一个过程,托福复习也需要一个过程,口语的提高更需要过程,偷工减料没完成我提出的指标的同学考试就会知道苦头了-要么在规定时间内说不出来,说不完整,要么离题或说得很痛苦。
建议基础不好的,口语说不出来的考生先背完我IPN题库最新预测配套的地道原创IPN北美托福风格的口语25-30篇和一些实用套句后,再选择其中的10-15个题目自己说一说、练一练,这样子能很快形成自己的一套口语词句,有自己一整套的句型、语法、词汇表达,在1个月内就能迅速大幅度提高成绩。
对于长期提高不了写作和口语,阅读听力等项目的同学也可以上我本人全球网络一对一的托福口语写作专项和托福综合课http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-87-1-1.html
Edward独创全球唯一北美托福思维口语方法,采用地道美国人口语风格,北美托福听说训练法,听力口语同步快速提高,短时间内能快速提高分数10-20分,上课内容为—Edward 研发的托福真题预测IPN口语答案资料(95-100%命中率),口语必考题实战练习---课前布置Edward 最新预测的口语题目。
选择比努力更重要,方向比速度跟更重要
                              
激情攻克托福,方向决定成功!
---托福想考出好成绩,单单靠题海战术、空有应试技巧和数次的反复报考是难有成效的,这种土办法使成绩每况愈下,越考越糟,信心全无,最后放弃。只有掌握地道托福思维方式,利用北美尤其是美国人的风格和Edward 的IPN托福最新题库+真题预测来进行学习和脚踏实地复习,并挖掘右半脑潜能,用激情学习,热爱托福,欣赏语言,才能一举多得,在短期时间内起到事半功倍的理想成绩。
我们来自五湖四海,为了一个共同的目标,聚在一起,相互扶持,并肩战斗,用激情,专业,方向和效率攻克托福,战胜托福,硕果累累。
一直以来,Edward 全球网络一对一学员们和IPN会员们成绩公布后来报喜说得最高频的一句话是:老师,我考过了,省了好几万元了!这是无数在国内外读语言/预科,硕士博士的学员的心声:花8-10万,几十万甚至上百万在国外学英语,还不如上Edward 的几次课http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-87-1-1.html
托福口语最新预测IPN会员提供预测题目对应的口语真题完整地道答案范文等请看http://bbs.ieltstofelglobal.com/thread-231387-1-1.html


最重点
第一套
Task 1
Question:
What characteristics do you think makesomeone a good parent? Explain why these characteristics are important to you.
Task 2
Question:
Some students prefer to work on classassignments by themselves. Others believe it is better to work in a group.Which do you prefer? Explain why.
Task 3
Hot Breakfasts Eliminated
Beginning next month, Dining Serviceswill no longer serve hot breakfast foods at university dining halls. Instead,students will be offered a wide assortment of cold breakfast items in themorning. These cold breakfast foods, such as breads, fruit, and yogurt, arehealthier than many of the hot breakfast items that we will stop serving, sohealth-conscious students should welcome this change. Students will benefit inanother way as well, because limiting the breakfast selection to cold fooditems will save money and allow us to keep our meal plans affordable.
Question:
The woman expresses her opinion of thechange that has been announced. State her opinion and explain her reasons forholding that opinion.
Listening Text:
W: Do you believe any of this? It’s ridiculous.
M: What do you mean? Well, isn’t it important to eathealthy foods?
W: Sure, it is. But they are saying yogurtsbetter for you than an omelet or than hot cereal? I mean, whether something ishot or cold, that shouldn’t be the issue. ** maybe on a really cold morning, inthat case, which is going to be better for you, a roll of cold cereal or a nicewarm omelet? It’s obvious. There is no question.
M: Uh, I am not goona argue with you there.
W: And this whole thing about saving money.
M: What about it?
W: Well, they are actually going to makethings worse for us, not better coz if they start cutting back and we can’t get what we wantright here on campus. Well, we’re going to be going offcampus and pay off-campus prices. And you know what? That’ll be expensive. Even if it’s only two orthree mornings a week, they can add up.
Task 4
Cognitive Dissonance
Individuals sometimes experience acontradiction between their actions and their beliefs-between what they aredoing and what they believe they should be doing. These contradictions cancause a kind of mental discomfort known as cognitive dissonance. Peopleexperiencing cognitive dissonance often do not want to change the way they areacting, so they resolve the contradictory situation in another way, they changetheir interpretation of the situation in a way that minimizes the contradictionbetween what they are doing and what they believe should be doing.
Question:
Using the example discussed by theprofessor, explain what cognitive dissonance is and how people often deal withit.
Listening Text:
This is a true story from my own life.In my first year in high school, I was addicted to video games. I played themall the time and I wasn’t studying enough. I was failing chemistry that was myhardest class. So this was a conflict for me because I wanted a good job when Igrew up and I believed, I knew, that if you want a good career you’ve got to do well in school. But I just couldn’t give up video games. I was completely torn. And my solution was tochange my perspective. See, the only class I was doing really badly waschemistry. In the others, I was OK. So I asked myself if I wanted to be achemist when I grew up and the fact is I didn’t. I waspretty sure I wanted to be a sociologist. So I told myself my chemistry classdidn’t matter because sociologists don’t really need to know chemistry. In other words, I changed myunderstanding of what it meant to do well in school. I reinterpreted mysituation. I used to think that doing well in school meant doing well in all ofmy classes. But now I decided that succeeding in school meant only doing wellin the classes that related directly to my future career. I eliminated theconflict at least in my mind.
Task 5
Question:
The speakers discuss two possiblesolutions to the woman’s problem. Briefly summarize the problem then statewhich of the two solutions you recommend and explain why.
Listening Text:
M: Hey, Monee, what’s wrong?
W: Oh, I’m just struggling about what to do. Iwon an award from the creative writing institute for a story I wrote. And…
M: That doesn’t sound like anything iswrong.
W: Well, it’s a huge honor to win andthere is an award ceremony they’ve invited me to attendwhich I’m so excited about. But, and here is what’s frustrating. I’ve got a biology exam thatscheduled for the same time.
M: Uh-oh. Well, have you talked to yourprofessor about this?
W: Yeah, she said I could write a five-pagepaper instead. And I have lots of ideas and know I could do a good job. But…
M: But what?
W: Well, writing a paper would take up somuch time, a lot more time than studying for and taking the exam. I have lotsof other school work to deal with.
M: Oh. Or you can have someone else receivethe award for you. I mean, go in your place accept it on your behalf.
W: Maybe, I still get the award and themoney that way.
M: Woo, you won money too?
W: Yeah, pretty cool, uh? But anyways, myparents were really looking forward to coming and seeing me on stage, shakinghands with the institute’s president and aloo. I hate to disappoint them.
M: True. I’m sure they are reallyproud.
W: Like I said, I’m still strugglingabout what to do.
Task 6
Question:
Using the examples from the talk,explain how persuasive strategies are used in advertising.
Listening Text:
In advertising, various strategies areused to persuade people to buy products. In order to sell more products,advertisers will often try to make us believe that a product will meet ourneeds or desires perfectly. Even if it’s not true, the strategies they use canbe subtle or friendly forms of persuasion that are sometimes hard to recognize.
In a lot of ads, repetition is a keystrategy. Research shows that repeated exposure to a message, even somethingmeaningless or untrue, is enough to make people accept it or see it in apositive light. You’ve all seen the car commercials on TV, like the one thatrefers to its roomy cars over and over again. You know which one I mean. Thisguy is driving around and he keeps stopping to pick up different people. He picksup three or four people. And each time, the narrator says, “Plenty of room for friends! Plenty of room for family! Plenty ofroom for everybody!” This same message is repeatedseveral times in the course of the commercial. Now the car…the car…actually looks kind of small. It’s not a very big call at all, but you get the sense that it’s pretty spacious. You think that the viewer would reach the logicalconclusion that the slogan misrepresents the product. Instead, what usuallyhappens is that when the statement “plenty of room” is repeated often enough people are actually convinced it’s true.
Another strategy that they use is to geta celebrity to advertise a product. It turns out that we are more likely toaccept an advertising claim made by somebody famous, a person we admire andfind appealing. We tend to think they’re trustworthy. So you might have a carcommercial that features a well-known race car driver. Now it may not be a veryfast car. It could even be an inexpensive vehicle with a low performancerating. But if a popular race car driver shown driving it and saying, “I like my cars fast!” Then people willbelieve the car is impressive for its speed.
第二套
Task 1Question:
Talk about a game, sport or other group activity that is playedin your country. Explain why you think the activity is enjoyable.
Task 2Question:
When looking for information for a research project, somestudents prefer to get their information mainly from the internet. Othersprefer to mainly use printed materials such as books and academic journals.Which do you prefer, and why?
Task 3New Stadium
A university official announced plans to spend $2 million tobuild a new athletic stadium, commenting that a new stadium would help theuniversity achieve its goal of attracting more top students. The official alsosaid that, additionally, building a new stadium would allow the university tostrengthen its relationship with the town since a new and larger stadium wouldhave the space to seat not only students, parents, and alumni, but members ofthe local community as well.
Question:
The woman expresses her opinion about the university’s plan. State her opinion and express the reasons she gives forholding that opinion.
Listening Text:
M: So,what do you think of the university’s new plan?
W: Oh,I don’t know. I don’t think it’s gonna work.
M: No?
W: Imean, I can’t imagine top students being too thrilledabout some of the conditions on this campus.
M: Whatdo you mean?
W: Likethe science laboratories having such old, outdated equipment, and the libraryneeding more books and the student center being so small. I think that the twomillion can be spent in better places if the university is really serious aboutachieving its goal.
M: OK,but what about the other reason for building the stadium? I mean, right now wehave so little contact with the town.
W: Yeah,but this won’t help relations. Look people from town hardlyever come to games because our teams always lose and they are not suddenlygoing to improve overnight. Besides, adding seats won’tmake a difference. I mean if people from town didn’tcome before, they won’t come now just because the placeis bigger.
Task 4Perceptual Constancy
How an object affects our senses depends in part on externalconditions, and these conditions are always changing. An object viewed from oneangle presents a different shape to our eye than when viewed from anotherangle; similarly, as the distance from which we view an object changes, theobject will appear larger or smaller. In spite of this, even as conditionschange and we see objects differently, we still recognize that they remain thesame. This is what is known as perceptual constancy. If not for perceptualconstancy, we might have difficulty recognizing familiar objects if we viewedthem in a new and different context.
Question:
Explain what is meant by “perceptual constancy”, using the examples provided by the professor.
Listening Text:
Let’s take an everyday example. An ordinary roundplate like you’d find in a kitchen. If you hold theplate directly in front of your face and look at it, what shape do you see? Aperfect circle, right? Suppose you tilt the plate to a different angle to ahorizontal position like you’re planning to put food onit. Still a perfect circle? No, the circle is now stretched out, flattened intoan oval. Do you conclude that the plate has actually changed the shape or that’s a different object not the same plate? Of course not. It looksdifferent, but we perceive it as still being the same.
Here’s a different example. This classroomwe’re in is fairly large, right? Now, from up close,form the front row, I appeared to be relatively big, bigger than if you are inthe last row, right? But let’s say you’re sitting at the front row today. But tomorrow you’re sitting in the back row. From back there, I’m going to look smaller but you don’t thinkI’ve actually gotten smaller, you don’t think you’re seeing a different professor,a guy who looks like me except he’s smaller. No matterwhere you are, up close or faraway, you understand without even thinking aboutit that I’m the same size, the same person.
Task 5Question:
The speakers discuss two possible solutions to the man’s problem. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which solutionyou recommend and explain why.
Listening Text:
W: Hey,Mark, how is it going?
M: Mm…not too good.
W: What’s wrong?
M: Well,you know how I’m the president of the anthropology club.Well, I’m supposed to drive everyone in the club to seea special exhibit in the museum tomorrow. My mom said I could borrow her van,you know, so everyone would fit. But unfortunately it broke down and it’s not gonna be repaired in time for the trip.
W: Oh,so what are you going to do? Can’t you rent a van?
M: Yeah,that’s a possibility. So a little risky for me though. I’ve tried to get in touch with the club members but only four havegotten back to me and said they contribute some money to the cost.
W: Whatabout the other members?
M: Idon’t know. It’d probably be OK with them too,but that’s the risk. I don’tknow for sure. I don’t wanna get stuck with having topay for most of the bill.
W: Well,since not everyone has gotten back to you, why don’t you just postpone the trip? You know, until your mom’s van is repaired.
M: Yeah,I could do that, though I’m sure everyone would be reallydisappointed if they show up tomorrow ready to go and find out that we are notgoing.
Task 6Question:
Using the examples of the leafy sea dragon and the cuttlefish,describe two kinds of camouflage and the benefits they provide.
Listening Text:
Now many sea animals, in order to hide from predators, have overtime developed different kinds of camouflage to help them blend in with theirenvironment and avoid detection by predators.
Picture the surface of the sea floor, it is as varied as theland we live on. It’s got peaks and valleys, vegetation,eh, rocky areas and some sea animals have developed permanent colors or shapesto resemble these environmental features. This camouflage helps disguise themfrom the predators by enabling them to blend into a specific part of the sea.For instance, take a kind of fish, like the leafy sea dragon. Well, the namesays it all. It resembles a small green dragon, with leaf-like protrusionssticking out like arms. Now because of its color and shape, it blends inextremely well with green sea plants, so if the leafy sea dragon is swimmingthrough these plants, predators have trouble seeing it. But when it entersother environments without these green plants, its camouflage doesn’t work any more.
Now other sea animals are difficult to spot anywhere in the seabecause their type of camouflage enables them to change color. Take thecuttlefish, a fish that is closely related to the squid and octopus, unlikeleafy sea dragons, cuttlefish have not developed any particular shape to hidefrom predators, but they have a lot more mobility because their camouflageallows them to blend into any environment because cuttlefish have shiftingpigments that allow them to change color in a matter of seconds, and, so theycan almost instantaneously match the color of their surroundings. If they areswimming by green sea plants they’ll turn green; andif they are swimming over the brown sea floor they’llturn brown.
第三套
Task 1Question:
There can be several advantages spending time in anothercountry. Talk about one advantage and explain how living in that countryprovides that advantage. Use details and examples in your response.
Task 2Question:
Some people enjoy spending their free time alone in activitiessuch as reading, thinking or writing; others enjoy spending their free timesharing activities with other people, which do you prefer and why?
Task 3No more internationalnews
For the past few years, the daily campus newspaper has includeda one-page international news section covering a few of the major stories inworld news. Starting next month, the section will be eliminated. One of thereasons the newspaper editors gave for the decision to cut the section is thatother news sources are better able to provide wider and more up-to-dateinternational news coverage. The editors also noted that the change wouldcreate space for a new calendar page that will list events and activitiesaround campus.
Question:
The woman expresses her opinion about the plan announced in thearticle. Summarize the plan. Then state her opinion about the plan and explainthe reasons she gives for holding that opinion.
Listening Text:
M: Hey,what do you think of this?
W: Youmean the editor’s decision?
M: Right.
W: OhI think they’re right. It’s thething to do!
M: Really?Why?
W: Well,hardly anyone reads that section.
M: Youdon’t think so?
W: Notreally. I mean they only cover a couple of stories and most people already knowabout them before they even get around to reading the campus paper.
M: True.If you get the local paper or use the Internet, you’ve already known the major stories.
W: Exactly,and the coverage’s better. I think we should just stick withthe campus news and stuff.
M: So,do you think what they’re gonna replace it with is better?
W: Definitely,right now how do you learn about what’s happening oncampus?
M: Mostlyfrom posters in the different buildings, or in the students’ center.
W: Right,the information is everywhere. But it’s hard to keep trackof it. I see stuff posted but then I forget about it half the time.
M: Soyou’re saying that with this new section…
W: …you could just cut it out from the newspaper and carry it around andcheck it anytime and know what’s taking place, when andwhere.
Task 4Reference Group
Our thinking and behavior are often influenced by other people.When we admire and respect someone, we naturally try to imitate their behaviorand attitudes. Groups of people whom we admire and whose behavior and attitudeswe tend to imitate are known as reference groups. Reference groups provide amodel—a frame of reference—that can shape how wethink and behave. Over the course of a life time, we may be influenced by manydifferent reference groups. As we grow older, or encounter new circumstances,our reference groups may change, and our attitudes and behavior may changeaccordingly.
Question:
Using the example from the lecture, explain how people'sbehavior is affected by reference groups.
Listening Text:
I have an example for my own life that illustrate this. When Ifirst began my university studies, I became friends with a bunch of artstudents. They were older and fun and very creative. And I thought they werereally cool. And they all liked to dress really casually, in T-shirts and jeansand sneakers. That's what they wore all the time, to class, to the library, todinner, everywhere. T-shirts and jeans and sneakers. So, that's what I startedwearing, too. And I fitted right in and I felt really cool. But then Igraduated, moved to Chicago and got a job. And I started working with somereally bright young people who'd already been working in the company for a fewyears, who were already handling major responsibilities for the company. Reallyimpressive. And sometimes, some of us would get together on the weekends, maybefor a concert or a baseball game or something. And at first, I just wore aT-shirt and jeans and sneakers. That was, you know, how I was used to dressing.But I soon noticed that my co-workers preferred to dress up a little bit. Theman would wear a nice pair of pants, a button-up shirt. The woman liked to weara fashionable dress and some nice shoes. They dressed in clothes a lot nicerthan what I was used to wearing. Then, I started thinking, you know, that looksreally classy, really sharp. And so, I started to dress the same way they did.You know, nicer, a little more formal. And, I don't know, somehow my T-shirtsand jeans and sneakers didn't seem as cool to me anymore.
Task 5Question:
Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Thenstate which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for yourrecommendation.
Listening Text:
W: How’s it going, mike?
M: Okay.I’m just trying to figure out what to do about this new bus schedule.
W: Newbus schedule?
M: Yeah.I take a bus from campus to my job downtown. I work there Tuesday afternoons.But the bus schedule changed. The bus I was taking is leaving earlier now. AndI can’t get to it in time because I get chemistry class then.
W: Huh,yeah, they do change these bus schedules sometimes. It’s inconvenient. So, what are you gonna do?
M: Well,I talked to my boss and she said that I could change my work hours and work atnight instead. I start late in the afternoon and then work till around midnight.And there is a bus to get me there on time.
W: Thatsounds good. So you could just take a later bus to your job.
M: Yeah.The only thing is, if I work late at night, I’ll be reallytired. And I have class early the next morning.
W: Yeah,but do you have any other choice?
M: Well,yeah. Another option is just to ride my bike to work after chemistry. I’d be able to get to work on time so I can keep my same hours. It’s not that far. It takes about 15 minutes.
W: Hmm… that might be nice because you get some exercise, but it’ll be uncomfortable riding your bike on days when there’s bad weather.
M: Yeah,I’ll have to think about it.
Task 6Question:
Using the examples of the Venus flytrap and the sundew describetwo ways that carnivorous plants get their nutrients.
Listening Text:
Now, plants like animals, and like us for that matter, neednutrients, substances that provide nourishment to survive, thrive and grow. Weget our nutrients from the food we eat, plants, though, most plants anyway,absorb their nutrients from the soil, right? Through their root systems. OK.But there are plants that don't get their nutrients from the soil. The placesthey grow, the soil is bad. So they get their nutrients from insects instead,from trapping and digesting insects, they are called carnivorous plants.Carnivorous plants capture insects in different ways. They have differenttrapping mechanisms: active traps and passive traps.
A plant with an active trap, a good example is the Venusflytrap. The Venus flytrap actually moves to catch its prey or parts of it doanyway. Its leaves, it has special leaves that are hinged in the middle. Thetwo halves of the leave open and close, sort of like a mouth to catch insects.And on these leaves is sweet nectar that attracts insects. Insects like thissweet stuff. And when they get lured in and land on the leaf, wham, the leafsprings shut, it’s an active trap and insect springs it, so tospeak. The leave quickly closes and forms a little cage, trapping the insectsbetween the leaves. The Venus flytrap is then able to digest the insect, andget its new nutrients.
But other carnivorous plants, their methods are passive. Theydon't have any moving parts to trap things. They have passive traps, like thesundew plant. The sundew plant also produces a sweet nectar that attractsinsects. Its leaves are full of little hairs that secrete the sweet substance.But what happens when insects land on the sundew's leaves to get at the sweetnectar? Well, unfortunately for the insects, the hairs on the leaves alsoproduce a super sticky glue-like substance. So when insects get stuck in them,they can't fly away. It basically gets glued there, allowing the sundew todigest it and absorb nutrients.(336)
一般重点
第一套
Task 1Question:
Talk about a time when a friend or family member helped you inthe past. Describe how the person helped you. Then explain why this wasimportant to you.
Task 2Question:
Some people enjoy taking risks and trying new things. Others arenot adventurous; they are cautious and prefer to avoid danger. Which behaviordo you think is better? Explain why.
Task 3Music Coming toCafeterias
Mary Dixon, Director of the Student Life Committee, announcedyesterday that beginning next semester university cafeterias will broadcastclassical music during mealtimes. “Music will foster amore relaxed atmosphere.” said Dixon, "Students'lives are hectic, and mealtimes provide important opportunities to take a breakand catch up with friends before moving on to the next class orassignment." Added Dixon. "We're also hoping that, if we provide themusic, students will unplug their personal music devices—their walkmans and mp3 players or whatever—andwill spend more time talking to each other. When students have their headphoneson. they're not connecting with each other."
Question:
The man expresses his opinion of the university’s plan. State his opinion and explain the reasons he gives forholding that opinion.
Listening Text:
M:This article? Are they serious?
W:Yeah, I think so. Why?
M:Well, first of all, a lot of kids aren’t looking forrelaxing break at lunchtime. They like to study while they eat, especially,they have exams coming up or some assignment they have to get done.
W:Yeah, that’s true.
M:And now they won’t be about to concentrate. This is gonna bevery distracting.
W:Hmm. Ok. I see your point.
M:And, second, most students don’t like classical music.
W: It’s certainly not what I listen to
M: Soare people going to stop listening to their own music?
W:No.
M: Ithink people will be even more likely to bring their MP3 player, you know, toplay their own music to block out the classical stuff.
W:Yeah, that makes sense.
Task 4Revealing Coloration
Many animals use coloration to protect themselves frompredators. One defensive strategy involving the use of coloration is what isknown as revealing coloration. Animals employing this strategy have an area ofbright color on some part of their body; this bright color is usually hiddenfrom predators' view. When approached by a predator, the animal suddenlyreveals the area of bright color; this unexpected display of color startles orconfuses the predator and provides the would-be prey with an opportunity toescape.
Question:
Using the examples of the peanut bug and the morpho butterfly,explain the concept of revealing coloration.
Listening Text:
There’s a large tropic insect called thepeanut bug. Yes, like the peanuts that you eat. Uh, and the peanut bug’s front wings are colored so that they blend in with theirsurroundings. But its back wings, which are usually closed and hidden, have thesebright colorful spots on them. And when the peanut bug’sattacked, it suddenly opens its back wings and out pop these big bright colors.And that surprises the predator and gives the peanut bug a chance to get away.
And then you have a butterfly called the Morpho butterfly. Andparts of the wings of Morpho butterfly are very shiny. They reflect a lot ofsunlight. When this butterfly is resting, this shiny part of its wings ishidden. Now, Morpho butterfly is often attacked by birds. So when a bird approaches,the Morpho flies away when the Morpho flaps its wings. All the bird can see isa flash of light reflected from the Morpho’s wings. Thoseflashes of light make it difficult for the bird to follow the Morpho and theMorpho is usually able to get away.
Task 5Question:
Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Thenstate which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for yourrecommendation.
Listening Text:
W:Hey, Steve. Are you ready for classes to start?
M:Not really. There is still a big conflict in my course schedule.
W:What’s wrong?
M:This is my last semester. And I’ve still got 2 required courses left totake in order to get my literature degree.
W:Ok.
M: Ihave to take both history of the novel and Shakespeare or I can’t graduate. Problem is the 2 courses meet at the same time.
W:Uh-oh. What are you gonna do?
M:Well. I talked to the professor who’s going to teachShakespeare. He said I could do an independent study to fulfill thatrequirement.
W:How would that work?
M: I’d read the assigned texts on my own, do all the same assignments andmeet him when I need to if I have any questions.
W:Well, that sounds like a good way to fulfill that requirement.
M:Yeah, plus it’d be nice to have one on one discussions withthe professor. It’s just that, well, working on my ownlike that, I’m kind of concerned I won’t be able to motivate myself to get the work done on time. It’s easy to put things off when it’s not anactual class. You know.
W:Yeah. Are there other options?
M:Hmm. Yeah. I found out that the Shakespeare classes being offered at another universityabout half an hour from here. That university has a really great literatureprogram. And our university will accept their credits. So
W:That’s an idea.
M:Yeah. I’m sure it’ll be a goodclass. And it’ll fulfill the requirement. Only thing isyou know I have to drive half an hour to get to the class and half an hour tocome back, 3 times a week. That’s a lot of time and gasmoney.
Task 6Question:
Using the points and examples from the lecture, explain the twopricing strategies described by the professor.
Listening Text:
Today, we’ll talk about how companies determinethe initial price for their products. By that I mean, when they first introducea product in the market. There are different approaches and today we’ll discuss two of them. They’re quitedifferent, each with their own advantages.
One approach or strategy sets the initial price of the producthigh followed by a lower price at a later stage. Why? Well, when introducing anew product, companies want to build a high-quality image for it. Products thatcost more are believed to be of higher quality. So during the early stages ofthe product’s life cycle, companies can make very highprofits from consumers willing to pay more for a high quality product. Andalthough consumers know that prices would eventually go down, they are alsowilling to pay more to get the product sooner. This approach works very wellwith oh innovative high-tech products for example. Now, just think about whenvideo recorders or video cameras or even cell phones first came out, they werevery expensive. But then they became much more accessible.
Another very common strategy sets the initial price low. Now,this happens when the market is already saturated with the product. Thestrategy is to undercut its competitors. Say there’s a newly starting computer maker trying to gain market share. Sowhat’d they do? Well, they offer a computer at anaffordable price, lower than existing brands. By doing this, the companyappeals to new consumers who won’t probably be eveninterested in getting a computer. And well of course, to existing consumers whomight now be tempted to switch brands. Now how does this company make profitswith this low price computer? Well. One thing that’soften done is to encourage their customers to buy accessories also manufacturedby them like printers or software for example.
第二套
Task 1Question:
Imagine your life ten years in the future. Talk about one wayyou think your life will be different in ten years than it is now. Use detailsto explain your answer.
Task 2Question:
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It isimportant to learn about other cultures. Use details and examples to explainyour opinion.
Task 3University Choir to EnterOff-Campus Singing Competitions
Currently, the university choir gives singing concerts only oncampus. Next year, however, the choir will add competitive events at otherlocations to its schedule. The choir’s new director feelsthat entering singing competitions will make the quality of the choir’s performance even better than it is now. “Competitionswill motivate students in the choir to pursue a higher standard of excellencein singing.” He said. In addition, it is hoped thatgetting the choir off campus and out in the public will strengthen thereputation of the university’s music program. This inturn will help the program grow.
Question:
The man expresses his opinion about the changed desicribed inthe article. Briefly summerize the change. Then state his opinion about thechange and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion.
Listening Text:
W: Jim,you are in the choir, right? What do you think about what they are doing nextyear? This article.
M: Ireally like it.
W: Yeah?
M: Yeah.The new director is right and it will motivate us.
W: How’s that?
M: Well,some of the other schools are really good. So we will really have to work hardto go up against them.
W: Yeah.
M: Imean, right now we don’t rehearse more than once a week. Butif we know we’d be competing with other schools, we’d probably rehearse more often and improve our singing a lot.
W: That’s true. The more you practice, the better you get. So, um, whatabout what the article said about how this will help the program?
M: Ihope it works. Right now our program is pretty small, but we have some reallytalented people. And it will be great to attract even more people.
W: So,how will this plan help?
M: Well,if we go to these off-campus events and other people hear us and think we arereally good, we might be able to get some new students interested in coming tothis university, to be a part of our music program and perform at our choirconcerts.
W: You’re right. I hadn’t really thought aboutthat.
Task 4Relict Behavior
In general, animals act in ways that help them to survive withintheir specific habits. However, sometimes an animal species may display abehavior that no longer serves a clear purpose. The original purpose for thebehavior may have disappeared long ago, even thousands of years before. Thesebehaviors, known as relict behaviors, were useful to animal when the species’ habitat was different: but now, because of changed conditions, thebehavior no longer serves its original purpose. Left over from an earlier time,the behavior remains as relict, or remnant, long after the environmentalcircumstance that influenced its evolution has vanished.
Question:
Using the example of pronghorn and lion, explain the concept ofa relict behavior.
Listening Text:
OK, so a good example of this, found right here in NorthAmerica, is something an animal called the American pronghorn does. Pronghorns,as you may know, are a kind of deer-like animal. They live out on the opengrassy plains, somewhat in the middle of North America. And they aresuper-fast. Pronghorns are in fact noted for being the fastest animal in thewestern hemisphere. Once a pronghorn starts running, zoom, none of itspresent-day predators, like the bobcat or coyote, can even hope to catch upwith it. It’s off in a flash.
OK, so why then do pronghorns run so fast? That’s the question. Well, it turns out that quite a long time ago- I’m talking tens of thousands of years –things on the grassy plains used to be very different for the pronghorns,because back then, lions used to live on the plains, chasing and preying uponthe pronghorns. And lions, of course, are a very swift-moving mammal, muchfaster than the bobcats or coyote or other predators that you find on theplains today. But now, however, lions are all extinct in North America. There areno longer a predator of the pronghorn. Tens of thousands of years ago, though,the lions were there, chasing the pronghorns, so back then, the pronghorn’s speed was critical to its survival.
Task 5Question:
Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Thenstate which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for yourrecommendation.
Listening Text:
W: Hey!Mat! You got your paper done for class today?
M: No,I just realized it’s sitting on my desk. I wrote it last night,but I forgot to bring it with me.
W: Ah-oh,so what are you gonna do?
M: Well,I could drive home and get it. I live off campus. But if I hurry, I’d probably get home and bring the paper back before class was over.You know how strict she is about late submissions.
W: Yeah,but you’d miss part of the class.
M: Iknow.
W: Maybeyou could talk to the professor. Explain what happened and ask her if you couldsend it later by email.
M: Iknow, but I’d have to do it after class, because shealways starts class right on time. There wouldn’t betime to talk to her until after class.
W: Well,why don’t you do that and hope she doesn’t consider the paper late.
Task 6Question:
Using points and examples from the lecture, explain how thecharacteristics of target customers influence marketing strategy for products.
Listening Text:
People who are likely to buy a company’s product are called “target customers”. And these target customers influence a company’s marketing strategy. In order to develop a marketing strategy, acompany will look at certain characteristics of the target customers to decidewhen and where to advertise, so that they’ll reach thetarget customers most effectively. I’d like to talk toyou today about two characteristics of target customers that can influencemarketing strategy, specifically age and geographical location of the targetcustomers.
Say a company makes toy cars. Who are its target customers?Kids, right? So if the company wants to make sure its television advertisingreaches its target customers, they’d want to advertiseduring times when kids are actually watching television, like during children’s television shows. That way it can make sure that kids see theadvertisements. And that way the company would get people in that age group togo buy toy cars or to ask their parents to buy them at least.
Now another important characteristic to consider is geographicallocation, places where the company’s target customerslive. Think about a company that makes boat. Its target customers are peoplewho own homes near oceans or lakes, places where they can use boats. After all,people who don’t live near water don’t have much use for boats. So by placing advertisings on signs alongthe road or on television in cities and towns that are near oceans or lakes,the company would be more likely to reach the target customers for its boatsand sell more of them as a result.
第三套
Task 1
Question:
Students have to complete various typesof academic assignments in school. Choose one of the assignments below andexplain why you think it is beneficial for students:
1. Research paper2.Class presentation 3.Group project
http://businessmajors.about.com/od/studentresources/a/GroupProjectTips.htm
Task 2
Question:
Do you agree or disagree with thefollowing statement? To protect the health of young children, advertisementsfor candy and junk food should not be shown on television. Use specific reasonsand details in your response.
Task 3
Keep the Music Building Open Later
Currently, the campus music buildingwhich has practice rooms students can reserve for playing instruments closenightly at nine p.m. I think the university should keep the building open untilmidnight. Often, student musicians want to practice their instruments later atnight, and right now there’s no good place for them to do that. Also, lots ofstudents want to use the practice rooms, so it’s oftendifficult to reserve one. If the building were open more hours, though, itwould be easier to accommodate the large number of students who want to reserverooms.
Question:
The woman expresses her opinion of thestudent’s proposal. Briefly summarize the proposal. Then state her opinionabout the proposal and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.
Listening Text:
W: Tim, did you see this letter in thepaper today?
M: Yeah, I did.
W: That would be great for us musicstudents. Because I mean what happens is, students are practicing in their dormrooms because they don’t have anywhere else they can go.
M: Yeah, I’ve done that myself, abunch of times, playing my violin.
W: Me too! And I always feel kind of badabout it, because even if you try to keep the volume down, it’s still pretty noisy.And other students are nearby in their rooms trying to sleep or study.
M: That’s true.
W: And we really could use more time slots,especially just before the big concerts, the winter concert and the springconcert, because everybody, from all sections of the orchestra, needs topractice then.
M: I know, I tried to make a reservation topractice before the winter concert, but I couldn’t, because other peoplein the orchestra had already booked every single time slot.
W: Exactly. So this would really help.
Task 4
Refute-and-Persuade
Sometimes companies realize thatconsumers may have developed a negative impression of a product. One way inwhich they can resolve this problem is by using an advertising technique knownas refute-and persuade. Refute-and-persuade means that in advertising aproduct, the company first indicates its awareness of the product’s disadvantage. Butthen the company refutes or challenges that disadvantage by demonstrating howthe advantage of buying and using the product makes up for any limitation itmay have. In this way, companies can persuade consumers to purchase a productdespite its drawbacks.
Question:
Explain how the example of thetelevision advertisement for pots and pans from the lecture illustrates thetechnique of refute-and-persuade.
Listening Text:
Alright, so I actually saw a goodexample of this just the other day. I watched an advertisement on televisionfor a well-known company’s pots and pans. And in the advertisement, there was awoman, a professional cook, talking about how she uses the company’s pots and pans in her own kitchen. Now, the woman in theadvertisement began by saying that this company’s potsand pans were expensive. She just came right out and admitted to the audiencethat they cost a lot more than most other companies’pots and pans. And she also said she realized that when people went shoppingfor new cookware, they might feel that they just didn’twant to spend all that money on such expensive pots and pans, since there wereso many others in the store that cost a lot less. But then she went on toexplain that the extra cost was worthwhile, because although these pots andpans cost more to begin with, they actually saved you money in the long run. How?Well, they came with this special life-time warranty, which means the companywill replace them free if anything ever went wrong, and that’s something most companies that make pots and pans couldn’t say about their products.
Task 5
Question:
Briefly summarize the problem thespeakers are discussing. Then state which of the two solutions from theconversation you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation.
Listening Text:
W: Hey, Mike. Did you finish that articleyou were writing for the campus newspaper? The one about the school play?
M: Not yet. Remember how I was going tointerview the student who’s directing it?
W: Yeah, you said that was going to be abig part of the article.
M: Right, and I was going to make most ofmy article about what the director said, since she knows about picking theplay, choosing the cast, designing the set, everything. But I just called, andit turns out she’s got a bad cold. She’s sick.
W: So you can’t interview her?
M: Not today, no. But I have a couple ofoptions. I could wait until she feels better and interviews her then. It’s just that then thearticle wouldn’t be done in time to go in this week’s paper.
W: Oh, so you’d have to put it in nextweek’s paper then?
M: Yeah, and the play’s opening thisweekend. I mean, it’s running next weekend, too. But it’d make more sense to have the article come out before the playopens.
W: I see what you mean. So what’s your other option?
M: Well, I could interview an actor insteadof the director. I talked to one of the lead actors, and he said he’d be happy to do aninterview today.
W: Sounds good. Then your article wouldcome out before the play opens.
M: I know, but it’s just that heprobably wouldn’t have as much to say as the director.I mean, he wouldn’t know about everything that wentinto planning the play the way the director does.
Task 6
Question:
Using points and examples from thelecture, describe two ways lakes can disappear.
Listening Text:
So, when we look at lakes, they seem tobe permanent, we assume they’ll be around forever. But in fact, lakes aren’t permanent. They can actually disappear. Sometimes they disappear throughnatural processes, and sometimes because of human activities.
First, let’s look at one way lakescan disappear naturally, and that is by gradually getting filled in withorganic sediment. This often happens with lakes that have lots of plants grow inthem. When the plants die, they break down into a muddy substance which fallsto the bottom of the lake. They are then replaced by new plants whicheventually also die and fall to the bottom. And over the years, all this deadplant material builds up on the bottom of the lake. And as it builds up, itstarts to fill up the lake, and there is less and less room left for water, andeventually the lake gets completely filled in and disappears.
Okay, and lakes can also disappear, andpretty rapidly sometimes, as a result of human activities. For example, we knowthat farmers need water to irrigate their crops. And sometimes to get thatwater, they pump the water out of a nearby lake, they install pipes that runfrom the lake to their farms, and they pump the water out of the lake and intotheir fields. That’s okay if the lake is continually being refilled with rain water, orwith water from streams that run into the lake, but if there isn’t enough rain water or stream water to replace the water thatfarmers take out of the lake, the lake will eventually dry out.
次重点
第一套
Task 1Question:
Talk about a place you enjoyed going to or visiting when youwere a child. Describe the place. Explain why you enjoyed it.
Task 2Question:
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Why orwhy not? Use details and examples to explain your answer.
It is more important to study math or science than it is tostudy art or literature.
Task 350S
Campus Dining ClubAnnounced
Starting this year, the university dining hall will be transformedinto The Campus Dining Club for one week at the end of each semester. Duringthe last week of each semester, the dining hall will feature special mealsprepared by the university's culinary arts students. The school feels that thiswill give students who are studying cooking and food preparation valuableexperience that will help them later, when they pursue careers. The universityhas announced that it will charge a small additional fee for these dinners inorder to pay for the special gourmet food ingredients that will be required.
Question:
The man expresses his opinion about the university’s plan. State his opinion and explain the reasons he gives forholding that opinion.
Listening Text:
W: Didyou see that article?
M: Yeah,and it sounds like a great idea. It’s really good forthe students in that program.
W: Don’t they cook in class anyway?
M: Well,yeah, they do. But my cousin was in the program a few years ago, and she saidthat it’s very different to cook for a lot of peoplein that kind of atmosphere than to cook for classmates.
W: Whyis that?
M: Wellin class you can take your time, but cooking for more people there is morepressure, I mean, you are in a rush, people are waiting, and it might be easyto make mistakes with all that stress.
W: Thenthey’ll think you are a bad chef, right?
M: Absolutely.
W: So,OK, it’s good practice. But what about the extracost?
M: Well,look at it this way. You’ve eaten at some of the fancierrestaurants in town, right?
W: Yeah,there are some great places to eat around here.
M: Thesestudents, they’ll be making fantastic meals and it’s gonna be cheaper than going out to those fantastic restaurants.
W: Muchcheaper actually.
M: So,you know, it will be worth it, the meals will be as good as the ones in those expensiverestaurants.
Task 4Target Marketing
Advertisers in the past have used radio and television in anattempt to provide information about their products to large, generalaudiences; it was once thought that the best way to sell a product was toadvertise it to as many people as possible. However, more recent trends inadvertising have turned toward target marketing. Target marketing is thestrategy of advertising to smaller, very specific audiences— audiences that have been determined to have the greatest need ordesire for the product being marketed. Target marketing has proved to be veryeffective in reaching potential customers.
Question:
Using the professor’s examples, explainthe advertising technique of target marketing.
Listening Text:
Nowadays something you notice more and more is televisioncommercials that are made specifically for certain television programs. So, eh,let’s say, eh, a company wants to sell a telephone, a cell phone. Nowduring TV shows that young people watch, you know, shows with pop music or teenserials, they create a commercial that emphasizes how fun the phone is, youknow, the phone has bright colors, and they show kids having a good time withtheir friends, and, well, the company wants the kids watching TV at this timeto want to buy this phone, this phone it’s madeespecially for them.
But the same company will make a different commercial to beshown during, say, a program about business or a business news show. Now forthis group of people, business people, the company will have to show howefficient their phone is, eh, how it can handle all business easily and maybeeven save money. And here’s the thing: it’s basically the same phone! The company has just made two differentcommercials to appeal to different groups of people.
Task 5Question:
Briefly summarize the woman’s problem. Thenstate which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for yourrecommendation.
Listening Text:
M: Susan,what happened to your arm?
W: It’s my wrist actually. I sprained it last weekend and I’m kind of upset about it because I’msupposed to play the violin in my string quartet big concert next week. We’ve been practicing for weeks, and we’vealready sold a bunch of tickets.
M: I’m sorry to hear that. What are you gonna do?
W: Well,I was thinking about trying to play anyway. I mean, I really don’t want to let the other three group members down. Plus the doctorsaid my wrist should be feeling better by then.
M: Oh,OK, so problem solved, right?
W: Notexactly. I’m worried that I’mgonna be out of practice, like I haven’t been able toplay the violin since I sprained my wrist. What if I don’t play well? I’d make the rest of the groupsound bad.
M: Whydon’t you ask somebody else to take your place?
W: Well,there’s only one other person I know of who can do it and that’s Jim. He is a great violist and I’m sure he’ll say yes. The thing is he is not very reliable, I mean, I’m in an orchestra with him, and he’s alwaysshowing up late for rehearsals.
M: Oh,so you are not sure you can depend on him.
W: Exactly,and we have less than a week left to rehearse for the concert. We’d really need him to show up on time for all of our rehearsals.
Task 6Question:
Using points and examples from the talk, explain the two typesof motivation.
Listening Text:
Why do we do the things we do? What drives us to participate incertain activities, to buy a certain car or even to choose a certain career? Inother words, what motivates us to do what we do? Well, in studies ofmotivation, psychologists distinguish between two very different types: ourreasons for doing something, our motivations can be extrinsic, in other words,based on some kind of external reward like praise or money; or they can beintrinsic, meaning we engage in the activity because it pleases us internally.Both create strong forces that lead us to behave in certain ways. However,intrinsic motivation is generally considered to be more long-lasting than theother.
As I said, extrinsic motivation is external; it’s the desire to behave in a certain way in order to obtain some kindof external reward. A child, for example, who regularly does small jobs aroundthe house, does them not because she enjoys taking out the garbage or doing thedishes, but because she knows if she does these things she’ll be given a small amount of money for doing them. But howmotivated would the child be to continue doing the work if her parents suddenlystop giving her money for it?
With intrinsic or internal motivation, we want to do somethingbecause we enjoy it or get a sense of accomplishment from it. Most people whoare internally motivated get pleasure from the activity, so they just feel goodabout doing it. For example, I go to the gym several times a week. I don’t go because I’m training for a marathon oranything; I just enjoy it. I have more energy after I exercise and I know it’s good for my health. So it makes me feel good about myself, andthat’s what kept me going there for the past fiveyears.
第二套
Task 1Question:
Talk about a special opportunity that was given to you. Explainwhy the opportunity is important.
Task 2Question:
State whether you agree or disagree with the followingstatement. Then explain you reasons, using details in your examples.
Task 3New Library Workspaces
Say good-bye to the big, multi-person study tables in TurnerLibrary. This summer, the tables will be exchanged for new personal study cubicles---small,one-person desks enclosed by walls. These new units will allow students to haveprivacy and work in isolation and will therefore eliminate noise in the libraryso students can concentrate. Additionally, the cubicles will enable the libraryto accommodate the recent increase in the number of students attending ouruniversity. Although the current tables seat six students each, they make pooruse of the available floor space. The cubicles, on the other hand, are designedfor maximum space efficiency, and the library can therefore add 50 new seats.
Question:
The man expresses his opinion about the upcoming change. Statehis opinion and explain the reasons he give for holding that opinion.
Listening Text:
M:They are making a mistake.
W: Whatdo you mean?
M: Look..they are trying to do away with distractions, so we can study better. But withthis change, we won't have anywhere in the library to get together to work ongroup projects.
W: True.Group project work is common these days.
M: So,instead of buying these new units, they should use the money to build meetingrooms, and that would reduce any noise in the main library areas.
W: Yes,that's what we could really use. There's just not as much need to work inisolation.
M: Exactly.And the other thing is, what's this about overcrowding. We'll sure we have morestudents enrolled in the university this year. But.. do we really have aproblem with overcrowded?
W: Idon't think so. I always get a whole table of myself.
M: Right.I see empty tables there all the time. It'll be just a waste of money toreplace what we have, since what we have now is sufficient for the amount ofthe students that use the library.
Task 4Ritualization
Sociobiologists believe that some communicative behavior inanimals is developed through a process called ritualization. In this process,the purpose of a give behavior changes over time—a behaviorthat originally had a practical purpose develops into one that communicates aspecific message. For example, a certain movement or physical feature mightevolve to serve as a signal or a warning that other animals will understand.Once a behavior is ritualized, it becomes a form of communication; therefore,if an animal engages in this behavior, other animals will be able to interpretthe meaning of the behavior quickly and respond appropriately.
Question:
Explain the concept of ritualization using the example of dogsdiscussed by the professor.
Listening Text:
Let’s start with an example you may be familiarwith. What’s one thing dogs typically do when they feelthreatened, when they wanna protect themselves. That’sright. They show their teeth. And when we see this, we know this behavior meansbasically stay away. Now, here is how this behavior became a recognizablewarning. A long long time ago, a dog sensing danger would get ready to bitewhatever animal was threatening. It’s started by baringits teeth, but the purpose of doing this was something very simple. The doginstinctively was making sure it wouldn’t bite its ownlips when it bit the other animal. OK? But what happened? Other dogs, otheranimals, over time, they learned that this teeth-baring always came before adog was going to bite. And so they started to read it as a signal to becareful, to keep away or risk getting bitten. This scenario repeated time aftertime also led to the dog’s awareness that by simplyshowing its teeth that a lot of time that was protection enough. What had beena simple physical preparation to bite had developed into a kind of defensivemechanism even of itself. The dog learned it did not need to actually attackbut could get the right result from just communicating the possibility of anattack through showing its teeth. It started to use this behavior as a warningsignal.
Task 5Question:
The speakers discuss two possible solutions to the woman’s problem. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which solutionyou recommend and explain why.
Listening Text:
M: HeySally. I just got the first draft of my research paper back from ProfessorStone.
W: Justnow? I got mine back a few days ago.
M: Yeah.Everyone else in the class that I know of got theirs a few days ago, too.
W: Butthe deadline. You are running out of time.
M: Yeah,I’m worried. I only have one day to review all these comments andwrite my final draft. He made a lot of suggestions.
W: Youshould definitely ask Professor Stone for a deadline extension. He should takesome responsibility for this situation. It is sort of his fault you won’t have much time to work on it before the due date.
M: I’ve thought about that but…would he think Iwas being pushy or critisizing him for not getting the paper back to me rightaway. I don’t want to offend him.
W: True.But it’s your grade we are talking about. You’ve got a legitimate concern. But it’sunderstandable if you’re uncomfortable asking.
M: Yeah.I’m in a tough spot.
W: Youknow, you could always just do your best with the time you have left. You are agood student. I bet you can finish it quickly, work really fast and it’ll still turn out good.
M: Domy best for the time I have left. Well if I work really hard, I imagine I mightdo OK but I’d have to be sure to deal with all thesecomments. I need a good grade.
Task 6Question:
Using points and examples from the talk, explain the concept ofdiffusion.
Listening Text:
Now let's talk about a particular cultural process, diffusion.Since the beginning of human history, diverse cultures have taken advantage ofone another's innovations when they come into contact. Diffusion is the processwhereby something cultural, like a custom, a type of food, or an invention, isspread from one group to another, or from one society to another. One groupadopts the cultural item, or more selectively, just part of a cultural item, ofanother group, you see.
Now diffusion can occur through a variety of ways— military conquest, or tourism, or even something like the influenceof satellite TV shows around the world. For example, take something likereading a modern newspaper here in the US. Have you ever thought about wherethe letters, the characters on the page of reading, where they came from? Theywere borrowed from another culture many centuries ago. Then the printing of thewords, well, that process was invented in Germany, and finally the paperitself, paper, was invented in China. These innovations from all over the worldwere shared across cultures over time. And so today we have newspapers in theUS. So the process of diffusion might take place over long distances, and overlong periods of time.
Now I'm not saying that diffusion happens easily, as Imentioned, sometimes it's selective. For instance, many people in the US haveaccepted the practice of acupuncture, the Chinese practice of using needles tocure disease or relieve pain. So lots of people in the US have realized thatacupuncture is effective. But few of them fully understand or have committedthemselves to the philosophy behind acupuncture. Cultures tend to resist ideaswhich seem too foreign, too different from their own beliefs and values. Butthe ideas which aren't perceived as too different are often incorporated,absorbed, diffused into their culture. So the practice of acupuncture has beenabsorbed into US culture, but not the philosophies of Chinese medicine. (327)
第三套
Task 1Question:
Think of a book that you have not read but are interested inreading. Explain why the book was important to you. Give specific details andexamples to explain your answer.
Task 2Question:
Some people like to have their cell or mobile phone with them atall times. Other people prefer not to bring their cell or mobile phone withthem everywhere they go, or they choose not to own one at all. Which do youprefer? Explain why.
Task 3Advisor Meetings ShouldNo Longer Be Required
At present, students are required to meet with their academicadvisors before the beginning of every semester. The advisors help studentsselect courses and advise them on graduation requirements. However, I don’t see the point of required meetings, since the necessaryinformation about the courses is already available on the university’s Web site, which all students have access to. In addition, eliminatingmeetings with advisors would ease the difficulty that students often have infinding a time to schedule a meeting when both they and their advisors arefree.
Sincerely
Amy Williams
Question:
The man expresses his opinion about the proposal in the letter.Briefly summarize the proposal. Then state his opinion and explain the reasonshe gives for holding that opinion.
Listening Text:
M: Didyou see this letter?
W: Yeah.Why?
M: Well,I don’t agree. It’s definitely not the same thingto just go on the university’s website.
W: Youdon’t think so?
M: No.I mean, sure, the basic information is there. But that’s not all advisors help you with. Sometimes there are different waysyou can meet the requirement for graduation, like different classes you can take.And if you talk to someone, they can help you figure it out.
W: Andyou can’t get that from just reading what’s on the website.
M: Right.Advisors have a lot of extra information, so they make it easier for you to seewhat your choices are.
W: Isee what you mean.
M: Andas for scheduling meetings, I have never had that kind of trouble.
W: Meeither.
M: Soanyone who does have problems must be waiting until the last minute to setsomething up.
W: That’s possible.
M: Imean the thing is, if you call or go to the office early enough to set up anappointment, schedules are open. It’s just if you waittill the last possible day, it would be harder. Cause they already have lots ofstudents.
Task 4Epiphytes
In rain forests, the canopy produced by the upper layer ofbranches may be so dense that few plants can grow on the shady ground below.Even so, many plants have adapted to life in the rain forest, developingfascinating strategies for survival. For example, various species known asepiphytes use a host plant as a platform for growth. Although epiphytes grow ona host tree, they take no nutrients from the tree itself. Attached to the tree,sometimes 30 or 40 meters high, these aerial plants have access to sunlight butnot to nutrients from the soil below. As a result, they have developed unusualmechanisms that have allowed them to overcome this problem.
Question:
Using the example of the urn plant, explain how epiphytes haveadapted to life in the rain forest.
Listening Text:
Ok. So a good example of this type of plant common to the rainforest is the urn plant. The urn plant wraps its roots around the branches ofthe trees or sometimes around the trunk near the upper part of the tree. Theyuse the trees for support, and this allows them to reside high in the trees incanopy where they can get plenty of sunlight. Now, the urn plant has a uniqueshape. It got its name because the formation of its leaves creates a kind ofurn or bowl where it can store water. The urn plant has rather long stiff spikyleaves. The leaves are slightly overlapping and are tightly rolled into a kindof cone shape or a funnel shape. Its flowers are held on a single stem in the center.Anyway, as I mentioned, the arrangement of the leaves forms a kind ofreceptacle or bowl at the base, so that as rain water collects on the leaves,it rolls down into the bowl where it can be stored. Ok. So its unique shapehelps it gather and store water. It also helps it to gather other nutrients.This is because insects, dead leaves from other plants or other debris land onthe leaves and then get washed down into the stored water. Gradually, theydecompose. The chemical breakdown creates a nitrogen rich food in the storedwater. So the water supply contains a kind of liquid fertilizer, that can bereleased to the plant whenever it needs it.
Task 5Question:
Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Thenstate which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for yourrecommendation.
Listening Text:
W: Hey,Steve. I hear you started a band.
M: Yeah.I play guitar and some friends and I got together to start making music. Wehave been practicing a couple of month. And I think we are ready to have aconcert.
W: Great.Are you gonna have the show soon?
M: Yeah.Hopefully some time in the next couple weeks. We are all pretty busy, but Ithink we can squeeze in a show before summer starts and everyone goes away.
W: Cool,where is it gonna be?
M: Wewant to do it in the campus auditorium. We play rock and roll. It’s kind of loud. So it would sound great in there. Problem is theauditorium is already booked for the next few weekends.
W: Sowhat are you going to do?
M: Well,there are no weekends left before summer, but there is an opening nextWednesday night. We could do the show then.
W: Thatcould be good. I mean, concerts are usually on weekends, but it would besomething fun for people to do in the middle of the week.
M: Yeah.That’s true. It’s just that, well, there willprobably be a smaller audience on a Wednesday, which might be kind ofdisappointing.
W: Well,yeah.
M: Butthere is one other option. We are friends with the people in another band. Theyare going to be performing in the auditorium next Saturday. And they actuallysaid they will be willing to let us perform with them.
W: Wow,that’s very nice of them.
M: Yeah,we’d play for a little while, and then they’dplay the rest of the night as scheduled.
W: Soundsgood.
M: Yeah.Only catch is, we wouldn’t have much time to perform, so wewouldn’t be able to do all the songs.
Task 6Question:
Using the examples from the talk, explain two ways that aproduct’s container can be designed to appeal toconsumers.
Listening Text:
When consumers are buying a product, most of the time they arenot buying just the product itself. They are also buying the container theproduct comes in. So the design of the container is very important. It can bethe deciding factor when consumers are trying to decide which brand of aproduct to buy. So let’s talk about a couple of ways productcontainers can be designed to appeal to consumers.
One important design goal is to make the container asuser-friendly as possible, as convenient to use as possible. Take, for example,when companies started using plastic containers for condiments, such asketchup, mustard and mayonnaise. In the past, these products came in glasscontainers with lids you had to screw off. And then you had to either pour theketchup or mustard on your food, which could be messy or scoop it out with aspoon. But flexible plastic containers were much more convenient to use. And sothey were more attractive to consumers. You just held the container over yourfood, gave it a little squeeze and out came the ketchup or mustard, much fasterand easier than having to remove a lid first.
Another important design goal is to give the container apleasing appearance, so that consumers will feel comfortable displaying it intheir home. Take, for example, a company that sells cookies. Instead of sellingtheir cookies in a plain cardboard box, they might sell them in a nice metalbox and they might decorate that nice metal box with beautiful pictures of somekind. That way, when consumers present the cookies to guests, for example, theylook nice, they look classy. Attractive containers kike that can make a productmuch more appealing.
临场提醒:1.考前要调节好生物钟,很多烤鸭都有熬夜读书习惯,早晨反而精神不佳,这跟托福考试很不相称,希望调节好。2.考前看托福公共微信tofelielts考前注意事项,以及听说读写各种题型临场解题技巧。3.托福考试当天必备携带物品清单,希望能为大家的备考带来帮助。
准考证和身份证
证件类物品,在临出门前,一定要再次在自己的包包中检查确认一下哦。托福考试的准考证,我们可以登录托福考试报名网站,直接找到,并打印。而对于考生的身份证,ETS也是有着严格的审核的。考生如未携带ETS要求提供的证件或携带证件不符合要求,将被拒绝进入考场,考费不予退还。

中国大陆的考生必须携带有效的居民身份证原件参加考试。请优先选择持第二代身份证,台湾地区考生必须携带有效的台湾地区居民往来大陆通行证原件参加考试,香港和澳门地区的考生必须携带有效的身份证或护照原件参加考试,非中国籍考生必须携带有效护照原件参加考试。

食物和水
在托福考试的过程中,建议大家可以带些高能量的食物比如巧克力,能量棒等等,毕竟对于几个小时的考试来说,消耗还是比较大的,能补充点食物和能量,不仅仅能提高自己的能量也能缓解一下自己考试的压力。当然,不要忘记带些水,在几个小时的考试中,无论是吃完东西漱漱口,喝点水缓缓乏,都是很有必要的。考完阅读听力会有10分钟休息,可以去休息室吃东西。

复习资料
考生们可以带一些复习资料,在考场外面排队的时候可以抓紧时间看一看。不过需要提醒大家除身份证件之外,任何个人物品都不允许带入考场。个人物品须存放在考场外指定的储物柜。考生一定要结合考试的规定,做好充分的托福考前准备,不要影响考试发挥。

其他物品
想要成功的完成托福考试,环境因素也是非常重要的。所以,有些考场冷气开得比较冷,建议大家不妨带着一件外衣。如果你不喜欢用铅笔,有的考场允许带自动铅笔的。

总之,在托福考试时候,除身份证件之外,任何个人物品都不允许带入考场。个人物品须存放在考场外指定的储物柜。考生可以在休息时间内补充能量。希望大家能做好充分的托福考前准备,不要影响考试发挥。
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发表于 2016-6-13 09:00:28 | 显示全部楼层
6月18日托福真题预测听说读写答案范文详解精准终结
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托福口语真题预测2016年6月18日,6月25日
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预测2016年6月18日,6月25日,7月1日,7月9日10日
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